Part 1


This tutorial uses the following frameworks:

  • Maven 3.0.4
  • Apache Camel 2.10.0
  • Apache CXF 2.6.1
  • Spring 3.0.7

Note: The sample project can be downloaded, see the resources section.

Initial Project Setup

We want the integration to be a standard .war application that can be deployed in any web container such as Tomcat, Jetty or even heavy weight application servers such as WebLogic or WebSphere. There fore we start off with the standard Maven webapp project that is created with the following long archetype command:

mvn archetype:create -DgroupId=org.apache.camel -DartifactId=camel-example-reportincident -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-webapp

Notice that the groupId etc. doens't have to be org.apache.camel it can be com.mycompany.whatever. But I have used these package names as the example is an official part of the Camel distribution.

Then we have the basic maven folder layout. We start out with the webservice part where we want to use Apache CXF for the webservice stuff. So we add this to the pom.xml



Developing the WebService

As we want to develop webservice with the contract first approach we create our .wsdl file. As this is a example we have simplified the model of the incident to only include 8 fields. In real life the model would be a bit more complex, but not to much.

We put the wsdl file in the folder src/main/webapp/WEB-INF/wsdl and name the file report_incident.wsdl.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
<wsdl:definitions xmlns:soap=""

	<!-- Type definitions for input- and output parameters for webservice -->
	<xs:schema targetNamespace="">
			<xs:element name="inputReportIncident">
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="incidentId"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="incidentDate"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="givenName"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="familyName"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="summary"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="details"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="email"/>
						<xs:element type="xs:string"  name="phone"/>
			<xs:element name="outputReportIncident">
						<xs:element type="xs:string" name="code"/>

	<!-- Message definitions for input and output -->
	<wsdl:message name="inputReportIncident">
		<wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:inputReportIncident"/>
	<wsdl:message name="outputReportIncident">
		<wsdl:part name="parameters" element="tns:outputReportIncident"/>

	<!-- Port (interface) definitions -->
	<wsdl:portType name="ReportIncidentEndpoint">
		<wsdl:operation name="ReportIncident">
			<wsdl:input message="tns:inputReportIncident"/>
			<wsdl:output message="tns:outputReportIncident"/>

	<!-- Port bindings to transports and encoding - HTTP, document literal encoding is used -->
	<wsdl:binding name="ReportIncidentBinding" type="tns:ReportIncidentEndpoint">
		<soap:binding transport=""/>
		<wsdl:operation name="ReportIncident">
				<soap:body parts="parameters" use="literal"/>
				<soap:body parts="parameters" use="literal"/>

	<!-- Service definition -->
	<wsdl:service name="ReportIncidentService">
		<wsdl:port name="ReportIncidentPort" binding="tns:ReportIncidentBinding">
			<soap:address location=""/>


CXF wsdl2java

Then we integration the CXF wsdl2java generator in the pom.xml so we have CXF generate the needed POJO classes for our webservice contract.
However at first we must configure maven to live in the modern world of Java 1.6 so we must add this to the pom.xml

			<!-- to compile with 1.6 -->

And then we can add the CXF wsdl2java code generator that will hook into the compile goal so its automatic run all the time:

			<!-- CXF wsdl2java generator, will plugin to the compile goal -->

You are now setup and should be able to compile the project. So running the mvn compile should run the CXF wsdl2java and generate the source code in the folder &{basedir}/target/generated/src/main/java that we specified in the pom.xml above. Since its in the target/generated/src/main/java maven will pick it up and include it in the build process.

Configuration of the web.xml

Next up is to configure the web.xml to be ready to use CXF so we can expose the webservice.
As Spring is the center of the universe, or at least is a very important framework in today's Java land we start with the listener that kick-starts Spring. This is the usual piece of code:

	<!-- the listener that kick-starts Spring -->

And then we have the CXF part where we define the CXF servlet and its URI mappings to which we have chosen that all our webservices should be in the path /webservices/

	<!-- CXF servlet -->

	<!-- all our webservices are mapped under this URI pattern -->

Then the last piece of the puzzle is to configure CXF, this is done in a spring XML that we link to fron the web.xml by the standard Spring contextConfigLocation property in the web.xml

	<!-- location of spring xml files -->

We have named our CXF configuration file cxf-config.xml and its located in the root of the classpath. In Maven land that is we can have the cxf-config.xml file in the src/main/resources folder. We could also have the file located in the WEB-INF folder for instance <param-value>/WEB-INF/cxf-config.xml</param-value>.

Getting rid of the old jsp world

The maven archetype that created the basic folder structure also created a sample .jsp file index.jsp. This file src/main/webapp/index.jsp should be deleted.

Configuration of CXF

The cxf-config.xml is as follows:

<beans xmlns=""

    <import resource="classpath:META-INF/cxf/cxf.xml"/>
    <import resource="classpath:META-INF/cxf/cxf-extension-soap.xml"/>
    <import resource="classpath:META-INF/cxf/cxf-servlet.xml"/>

    <!-- implementation of the webservice -->
    <bean id="reportIncidentEndpoint" class="org.apache.camel.example.reportincident.ReportIncidentEndpointImpl"/>

    <!-- export the webservice using jaxws -->
    <jaxws:endpoint id="reportIncident"


The configuration is standard CXF and is documented at the Apache CXF website.

The 3 import elements is needed by CXF and they must be in the file.

Noticed that we have a spring bean reportIncidentEndpoint that is the implementation of the webservice endpoint we let CXF expose.
Its linked from the jaxws element with the implementator attribute as we use the # mark to identify its a reference to a spring bean. We could have stated the classname directly as implementor="org.apache.camel.example.reportincident.ReportIncidentEndpoint" but then we lose the ability to let the ReportIncidentEndpoint be configured by spring.
The address attribute defines the relative part of the URL of the exposed webservice. wsdlLocation is an optional parameter but for persons like me that likes contract-first we want to expose our own .wsdl contracts and not the auto generated by the frameworks, so with this attribute we can link to the real .wsdl file. The last stuff is needed by CXF as you could have several services so it needs to know which this one is. Configuring these is quite easy as all the information is in the wsdl already.

Implementing the ReportIncidentEndpoint

Phew after all these meta files its time for some java code so we should code the implementor of the webservice. So we fire up mvn compile to let CXF generate the POJO classes for our webservice and we are ready to fire up a Java editor.

You can use mvn idea:idea or mvn eclipse:eclipse to create project files for these editors so you can load the project. However IDEA has been smarter lately and can load a pom.xml directly.

As we want to quickly see our webservice we implement just a quick and dirty as it can get. At first beware that since its jaxws and Java 1.5 we get annotations for the money, but they reside on the interface so we can remove them from our implementations so its a nice plain POJO again:

package org.apache.camel.example.reportincident;

 * The webservice we have implemented.
public class ReportIncidentEndpointImpl implements ReportIncidentEndpoint {

    public OutputReportIncident reportIncident(InputReportIncident parameters) {
        System.out.println("Hello ReportIncidentEndpointImpl is called from " + parameters.getGivenName());

        OutputReportIncident out = new OutputReportIncident();
        return out;


We just output the person that invokes this webservice and returns a OK response. This class should be in the maven source root folder src/main/java under the package name org.apache.camel.example.reportincident. Beware that the maven archetype tool didn't create the src/main/java folder, so you should create it manually.

To test if we are home free we run mvn clean compile.

Running our webservice

Now that the code compiles we would like to run it inside a web container, for this purpose we make use of Jetty which we will bootstrap using it's plugin org.mortbay.jetty:maven-jetty-plugin:

               <!-- so we can run mvn jetty:run -->

Notice: We make use of the Jetty version being defined inside the Camel's Parent POM.

So to see if everything is in order we fire up jetty with mvn jetty:run and if everything is okay you should be able to access http://localhost:8080.
Jetty is smart that it will list the correct URI on the page to our web application, so just click on the link. This is smart as you don't have to remember the exact web context URI for your application - just fire up the default page and Jetty will help you.

So where is the damn webservice then? Well as we did configure the web.xml to instruct the CXF servlet to accept the pattern /webservices/* we should hit this URL to get the attention of CXF: http://localhost:8080/camel-example-reportincident/webservices.


Hitting the webservice

Now we have the webservice running in a standard .war application in a standard web container such as Jetty we would like to invoke the webservice and see if we get our code executed. Unfortunately this isn't the easiest task in the world - its not so easy as a REST URL, so we need tools for this. So we fire up our trusty webservice tool SoapUI and let it be the one to fire the webservice request and see the response.

Using SoapUI we sent a request to our webservice and we got the expected OK response and the console outputs the System.out so we are ready to code.


Remote Debugging

Okay a little sidestep but wouldn't it be cool to be able to debug your code when its fired up under Jetty? As Jetty is started from maven, we need to instruct maven to use debug mode.
Se we set the MAVEN_OPTS environment to start in debug mode and listen on port 5005.

MAVEN_OPTS=-Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m -Xdebug -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,server=y,suspend=n,address=5005

Then you need to restart Jetty so its stopped with ctrl + c. Remember to start a new shell to pickup the new environment settings. And start jetty again.

Then we can from our IDE attach a remote debugger and debug as we want.
First we configure IDEA to attach to a remote debugger on port 5005:


Then we set a breakpoint in our code ReportIncidentEndpoint and hit the SoapUI once again and we are breaked at the breakpoint where we can inspect the parameters:


Adding a unit test

Oh so much hard work just to hit a webservice, why can't we just use an unit test to invoke our webservice? Yes of course we can do this, and that's the next step.
First we create the folder structure src/test/java and src/test/resources. We then create the unit test in the src/test/java folder.

package org.apache.camel.example.reportincident;

import junit.framework.TestCase;

 * Plain JUnit test of our webservice.
public class ReportIncidentEndpointTest extends TestCase {


Here we have a plain old JUnit class. As we want to test webservices we need to start and expose our webservice in the unit test before we can test it. And JAXWS has pretty decent methods to help us here, the code is simple as:


    private static String ADDRESS = "http://localhost:9090/unittest";

    protected void startServer() throws Exception {
        // We need to start a server that exposes or webservice during the unit testing
        // We use jaxws to do this pretty simple
        ReportIncidentEndpointImpl server = new ReportIncidentEndpointImpl();
        Endpoint.publish(ADDRESS, server);

The Endpoint class is the that under the covers looks for a provider and in our case its CXF - so its CXF that does the heavy lifting of exposing out webservice on the given URL address. Since our class ReportIncidentEndpointImpl implements the interface ReportIncidentEndpoint that is decorated with all the jaxws annotations it got all the information it need to expose the webservice. Below is the CXF wsdl2java generated interface:


package org.apache.camel.example.reportincident;

import javax.jws.WebMethod;
import javax.jws.WebParam;
import javax.jws.WebResult;
import javax.jws.WebService;
import javax.jws.soap.SOAPBinding;
import javax.jws.soap.SOAPBinding.ParameterStyle;
import javax.xml.bind.annotation.XmlSeeAlso;

 * This class was generated by Apache CXF 2.1.1
 * Wed Jul 16 12:40:31 CEST 2008
 * Generated source version: 2.1.1

@WebService(targetNamespace = "", name = "ReportIncidentEndpoint")
@SOAPBinding(parameterStyle = SOAPBinding.ParameterStyle.BARE)

public interface ReportIncidentEndpoint {


    @SOAPBinding(parameterStyle = SOAPBinding.ParameterStyle.BARE)
    @WebResult(name = "outputReportIncident", targetNamespace = "", partName = "parameters")
    @WebMethod(operationName = "ReportIncident", action = "")
    public OutputReportIncident reportIncident(
        @WebParam(partName = "parameters", name = "inputReportIncident", targetNamespace = "")
        InputReportIncident parameters

Next up is to create a webservice client so we can invoke our webservice. For this we actually use the CXF framework directly as its a bit more easier to create a client using this framework than using the JAXWS style. We could have done the same for the server part, and you should do this if you need more power and access more advanced features.

    import org.apache.cxf.jaxws.JaxWsProxyFactoryBean;
    protected ReportIncidentEndpoint createCXFClient() {
        // we use CXF to create a client for us as its easier than JAXWS and works
        JaxWsProxyFactoryBean factory = new JaxWsProxyFactoryBean();
        return (ReportIncidentEndpoint) factory.create();

So now we are ready for creating a unit test. We have the server and the client. So we just create a plain simple unit test method as the usual junit style:

    public void testRendportIncident() throws Exception {

        ReportIncidentEndpoint client = createCXFClient();

        InputReportIncident input = new InputReportIncident();
        input.setSummary("bla bla");
        input.setDetails("more bla bla");
        input.setPhone("+45 2962 7576");

        OutputReportIncident out = client.reportIncident(input);
        assertEquals("Response code is wrong", "OK", out.getCode());

Now we are nearly there. But if you run the unit test with mvn test then it will fail. Why!!! Well its because that CXF needs is missing some dependencies during unit testing. In fact it needs the web container, so we need to add this to our pom.xml.

    <!-- cxf web container for unit testing -->

Well what is that, CXF also uses Jetty for unit test - well its just shows how agile, embedable and popular Jetty is.

So lets run our junit test with, and it reports:

mvn test
Tests run: 1, Failures: 0, Errors: 0, Skipped: 0

Yep thats it for now. We have a basic project setup.

End of part 1

Thanks for being patient and reading all this more or less standard Maven, Spring, JAXWS and Apache CXF stuff. Its stuff that is well covered on the net, but I wanted a full fledged tutorial on a maven project setup that is web service ready with Apache CXF. We will use this as a base for the next part where we demonstrate how Camel can be digested slowly and piece by piece just as it was back in the times when was introduced and was learning the Spring framework that we take for granted today.


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  1. Having never seen a pom.xml file before, I had to hunt and peck to figure out where the properties, dependencies and plugins went in the file. Would be helpful to note in the text where they go, altho the mvn errors were very clear and it was simple to figure out.

  2. In Implementing the ReportIncidentEndpoint : running mvn compile did not create the java or package folders, or the .java file. I used the .zip as a template and created the folders and file manually.

    When adding env variable had to be surrounded in quotes. added following to ~/.bash_profile (osx)
    export MAVEN_OPTS="-Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m -Xdebug -Xrunjdwp:transport=dt_socket,server=y,suspend=n,address=5005"