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  • KIP-213 Support non-key joining in KTable
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Status

Current state: Under Discussion

Discussion thread: here

JIRA: KAFKA-3705

Please keep the discussion on the mailing list rather than commenting on the wiki (wiki discussions get unwieldy fast).

Motivation

We want to close the gap between the semantics of KTables in streams and tables in relational databases. It is common practice to capture changes as they are made to tables in some RDMS into kafka topics (JDBC-connect, debezium, Maxwell). It is also common practice to use some sort of normalization inside the RDBMS so that entities end up in a one-to-many relationship. Usually RDBMSs offer good support to resolve this relationship with a join. Streams falls short here and the workaround (group by - join - lateral view) is not well supported as well and is not in line with the idea of record based processing.

 

Public Interfaces

Less intrusive

We would introduce a new Method into KTable and KTableImpl

KTable.java
   /**
     * 
     * Joins one record of this KTable to n records of the other KTable,
     * an update in this KTable will update all n matching records, an update
     * in other table will update only the one matching record.
     * 
     * @param the table containing n records for each K of this table
     * @param keyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} returning the key of this table from the others value
     * @param joinPrefixFaker a {@code ValueMapper} returning an outputkey that when serialized only produces the
     *                             prefix of the output key which is the same as serializing K 
     * @param leftKeyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} extracting the Key of this table from the resulting Key 
     * @param <KO> the resultings tables Key
     * @param <VO> the resultings tables Value
     * @param joiner
     * @return
     */
    <KO, VO, K1, V1> KTable<KO, VO> oneToManyJoin(KTable<K1, V1> other,
            ValueMapper<V1, K> keyExtractor,
            ValueMapper<K, KO> joinPrefixFaker,
            ValueMapper<KO, K> leftKeyExtractor, 
            ValueJoiner<V, V1, VO> joiner,
            Serde<K1> keyOtherSerde, Serde<V1> valueOtherSerde,
            Serde<KO> joinKeySerde, Serde<VO> joinValueSerde);

More intrusive

We would Introduce a new Complex type: Combined Key

package org.apache.kafka.streams;

public class CombinedKey<P,S> {
    public P prefix;
    public S suffix;
}

The method could be rewritten

KTable.java
   /**
     * 
     * Joins one record of this KTable to n records of the other KTable,
     * an update in this KTable will update all n matching records, an update
     * in other table will update only the one matching record.
     * 
     * @param the table containing n records for each K of this table
     * @param keyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} returning the key of this table from the others value
     * @param leftKeyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} extracting the Key of this table from the resulting Key 
     * @param <VO> the resultings tables Value
     * @param joiner
     * @return
     */
    <VO, K1, V1> KTable<CombinedKey<K,K1>,VO> oneToManyJoin(KTable<K1, V1> other,
            ValueMapper<V1, K> keyExtractor, 
            ValueJoiner<V, V1, VO> joiner,
            Serde<K1> keyOtherSerde, Serde<V1> valueOtherSerde,
            Serde<VO> joinValueSerde);

Tradeoffs

The more intrusive version gives the user better clarity that his resulting KTable is not only keyed by the other table's key but its also keyed by this table's key. So he will be less surprised that in a theoretical later aggregation he might find the same key from the other ktable twice. On the other hand the less intrusive method doesn't need to introduce this wrapper class but let the user handle the need of having both tables keys present in the output key himself. This might lead to a deeper understanding for the user and serdes might be able to pack the data denser. An additional benefit is that the user can stick with his default serde or his standard way of serializing when sinking the data into another topic using for example to() while the CombinedKey would require an additional mapping to what the less intrusive method has.

Back and forth mapper

This is a proposal to get rid of the Type CombinedKey in the return type. We would internally use a Combined key and a Combined Key Serde and apply the mappers only at the processing boundaries (ValueGetterSupplier, context.forward). The data will still be serialized for repartitioning in a way that is specific to Kafka and might prevent users from using their default tooling with these topics.

KTable.java
     /**
	 * 
     * Joins one record of this KTable to n records of the other KTable,
     * an update in this KTable will update all n matching records, an update
     * in other table will update only the one matching record.
     * 
     * @param the table containing n records for each K of this table
     * @param keyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} returning the key of this table from the others value
     * @param customCombinedKey a {@code ValueMapper} allowing the CombinedKey to be wrapped in a custom object
	 * @param combinedKey a {@code ValueMapper} allowing to unwrap the custom object again.
     * @param <VO> the resultings tables Value
     * @param joiner
     * @return
     */
    <KO VO, K1, V1> KTable<KO,VO> oneToManyJoin(KTable<K1, V1> other,
            ValueMapper<V1, K> keyExtractor, 
			ValueMapper<CombinedKey<K1,K>,KO> outputKeyCombiner,
			ValueMapper<KO,CombinedKey<K1,K>> outputKeySpliter,
			ValueJoiner<V, V1, VO> joiner,
            Serde<K1> keyOtherSerde, 
	        Serde<V1> valueOtherSerde,
            Serde<VO> joinValueSerde);

Custom Serde

Introducing an additional new Serde. This is the approach is the counterpart to having a back and forth mapper. With this approach it is possible to keep any Custom serialization mechanism off the wire. How to serialize is completely with the user.

package org.apache.kafka.streams;

public class CombinedKeySerde<K,K1> extends Serde<CombinedKey<K,K1>> {
	
	public Serializer<K> getPartialKeySerializer();
 }
KTable.java
   /**
     * 
     * Joins one record of this KTable to n records of the other KTable,
     * an update in this KTable will update all n matching records, an update
     * in other table will update only the one matching record.
     * 
     * @param the table containing n records for each K of this table
     * @param keyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} returning the key of this table from the others value
     * @param leftKeyExtractor a {@code ValueMapper} extracting the Key of this table from the resulting Key 
     * @param <VO> the resultings tables Value
     * @param joiner
     * @return
     */
    <VO, K1, V1> KTable<CombinedKey<K,K1>,VO> oneToManyJoin(KTable<K1, V1> other,
            ValueMapper<V1, K> keyExtractor, 
            ValueJoiner<V, V1, VO> joiner,
            Serde<K1> keyOtherSerde, Serde<V1> valueOtherSerde,
            Serde<VO> joinValueSerde,
			CombinedKeySerde<K,K1> combinedKeySerde);

Streams

We will implement a default CombinedKeySerde that will use a regular length encoding for both fields. So calls to the "intrusive approach" would constuct a default CombinedKeySerde and invoke the Serde Overload. This would work with all serde frameworks if the user is not interested in how the data is serialized in the topics.

Protobuf / Avro / thrift / Hadoop-Writeable / Custom

Users of these frameworks should have a very easy time implementing a CombinedKeySerde. Essentially they define an object that wraps K and K1 as usual keeping K1 as an optional field. The serializer returned from getPartialKeySerializer() would do the following:

  1. create such a wrapping object
  2. set the value for the K field
  3. serialize the wrapped object as usual.

This should work straight forward and users might implement a CombinedKeySerde that is specific to their framework and reuse the logic without implementing a new Serde for each key-pair.

JSON

Implementing a CombinedKeySerde depends on the specific framework with json. A full key would look like this "{  "a" :{ "key":"a1" }, "b": {"key":"b5" }   }" to generate a true prefix one had to generate "{ "a" :{ "key":"a1"", which is not valid json. This invalid Json will not leave the jvm but it might be more or less tricky to implement a serializer generating it. Maybe we could provide users with a utility method to make sure their serde statisfies our invariants.

 

 

Proposed Changes

Goal

With the two relations A,B and there is one A for each B and there may be many B's for each A. A is represented by the KTable the method described above gets invoked on, while B is represented by that methods first argument. We want to implement a Set of processors that allows a user to create a new KTable where A and B are joined based on the reference to A in B. A and B are represented as KTable B being partitioned by B's key and A being partitioned by A's key.

Algorithm


ascii_raw_KIP-213

 

  • Call enable sendOldValues() on sources with "*"
  • Register a child of B
    • extract A's key and B's key as key and B as value.
      • forward(key, null) for old
      • forward(key, b) for new
      • skip old if A's key didn't change (ends up in same partition)
  • Register sink for internal repartition topic (number of partitions equal to A, if a is internal prefer B over A for deciding number of partitions)
    • in the sink, only use A's key to determine partition
  • Register source for intermediate topic
    • co-partition with A's sources
    • materialize
    • serde for rocks needs to serialize A before B. ideally we use the same serde also for the topic
  • Register processor after above source.
    • On event extract A's key from the key
    • look up A by it's key
    • perform the join (as usual)
  • Register processor after A's processor
    • On event uses A's key to perform a Range scan on B's materialization
    • For every row retrieved perform join as usual
  • Register merger
    • Forward join Results
    • On lookup use full key to lookup B and extract A's key from the key and lookup A. Then perform join.
  • Merger wrapped into KTable and returned to the user.

Step by Step

TOPOLOGY INPUT ATOPOLOGY INPUT BSTATE A MATERIALZEDSTATE B MATERIALIZEINTERMEDIATE RECORDS PRODUCEDSTATE B OTHER TASKOutput A Source / Input Range ProccesorOUTPUT RANGE PROCESSOROUTPUT LOOKUP PROCESSOR
key: A0 value: [A0 ...] key: A0 value: [A0 ...]   Change<null,[A0 ...]>

invoked but nothing found.

Nothing forwarded

 
key: A1 value: [A1 ...] 

key: A0 value: [A0 ...]

key: A1 value: [A1 ...]

   Change<null,[A1 ...]>invoked but nothing found. Nothing forwarded 
 key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: A0 value: [A0 ...]

key: A1 value: [A1 ...]

key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]partition key: A2 key: A2B0 value: [A2,B0 ...]key: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]  

invoked but nothing found

Nothing forwarded

 key: B1 : value [A2,B1 ...]

key: A0 value: [A0 ...]

key: A1 value: [A1 ...]

key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: B1 : value [A2,B1 ...]

partition key: A2 key: A2B1 value [A2,B1 ...]

key: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: A2B1 : value [A2,B1 ...]

  

invoked but nothing found

Nothing forwarded

key: A2 value: [A2 ...] 

key: A0 value: [A0 ...]

key: A1 value: [A1 ...]

key: A2 value: [A2 ...]

key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: B1 : value [A2,B1 ...]

 

key: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: A2B1 : value [A2,B1 ...]

Change<null,[A2 ...]>

key A2B0 value: Change<null,join([A2 ...],[A2,B0 ...])

key A2B1 value: Change<null,join([A2 ...],[A2,B1...])

 
 key: B1 : value null key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]partition key: A2 key: A2B1 value:nullkey: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]  key A2B1 value: Change<join([A2 ...],[A2,B1...],null)
 key: B3 : value [A0,B3 ...] 

key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: B3 : value [A0,B3 ...]

partition key: A0 key: A0B3 value:[A0,B3 ...]

key: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: A0B3 : value [A0,B3 ...]

  key A0B3 value: Change<join(null,[A0 ...],[A0,B3...])
key: A2 value: null 

key: A0 value: [A0 ...]

key: A1 value: [A1 ...]

key: B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: B3 : value [A0,B3 ...]

 

key: A2B0 : value [A2,B0 ...]

key: A0B3 : value [A0,B3 ...]

Change<[A2 ...],null>key A2B0 value: Change<join([A2 ...],[A2,B0 ...],null) 

 

Range lookup

It is pretty straight forward to completely flush all changes that happened before the range lookup into rocksb and let it handle a the range scan. Merging rocksdb's result iterator with current in-heap caches might be not in scope of this initial KIP. Currently we at trivago can not identify the rocksDb flushes to be a performance problem. Usually the amount of emitted records is the harder problem to deal with in the first place.

Missing reference to A

B records with a 'null' A-key value would be silently dropped.

Compatibility, Deprecation, and Migration Plan

  • There is no impact to existing users.

Rejected Alternatives

If there are alternative ways of accomplishing the same thing, what were they? The purpose of this section is to motivate why the design is the way it is and not some other way.C

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