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Apache Kafka has achieved great success as a highly scalable event-streaming platform. The way that consumer groups assign partitions to members of the group gives a powerful combination of ordering and scalability, but it does introduce coupling between the number of consumers in a consumer group and the number of partitions. Users of Kafka often have to “over-partition” simply to ensure they can have sufficient parallel consumption to cope with peak loads.
There are plenty of situations in which consumers could cooperatively consume from a stream of events without needing to be assigned exclusive access to specific topic-partitions. This, together with per-message acknowledgement and delivery counts, enables a class of use-cases traditionally built around the concept of a queue. For example, a queue is perfect for a situation in which messages are independent work items that can be processed concurrently by a pool of applications, and individually retried or acknowledged as processing completes. This is much easier to achieve using a queue rather than a partitioned topic with a consumer group.
This KIP introduces the concept of a share group as a way of enabling cooperative consumption using Kafka topics. It does not add the concept of a “queue” to Kafka per se, but rather that introduces cooperative consumption to accommodate these queuing use-cases using regular Kafka topics. Share groups make this possible. You can think of a share group as roughly equivalent to a “durable shared subscription” in existing systems.
This is indeed Queues for Kafka - queues done in a Kafka way, with no maximum queue depth and the ability to reset to a specific time for point-in-time recovery.
Share groups allow Kafka consumers to work together cooperatively consuming and processing the records from topics. They are an alternative to consumer groups for situations in which finer-grained sharing is required.
The fundamental differences between a share group and a consumer group are:
The consumers in a share group cooperatively consume records without partition assignment
The number of consumers in a share group can exceed the number of partitions
Records are acknowledged on an individual basis, although the system is optimized to work in batches for improved efficiency
Delivery attempts to consumers in a share group are counted to enable automated handling of unprocessable records
Share groups are a new kind of group, alongside the existing consumer groups.
All consumers in the same share group subscribed to the same topic cooperatively consume the records of that topic. If a topic is accessed by consumers in more than one share group, each share group cooperatively consumes from that topic independently of the other share groups.
Each consumer can dynamically set the list of topics it wants to subscribe to. In practice, all of the consumers in a share group will usually subscribe to the same topic or topics.
When a consumer in a share-group fetches records, it receives available records from any of the topic-partitions that match its subscriptions. Records are acquired for delivery to this consumer with a time-limited acquisition lock. While a record is acquired, it is not available for another consumer. By default, the lock duration is 30s, but it can also be controlled using a consumer configuration. The idea is that the lock is automatically released once the lock duration has elapsed, and then the record is available to be given to another consumer. The consumer which holds the lock can deal with it in the following ways:
The consumer can acknowledge successful processing of the record
The consumer can release the record, which makes the record available for another delivery attempt
The consumer can reject the record, which indicates that the record is unprocessable and does not make the record available for another delivery attempt
The consumer can do nothing, in which case the lock is automatically released when the lock duration has elapsed
The cluster limits the number of records acquired for consumers for each topic-partition in a share group. Once the limit is reached, fetching records will temporarily yield no further records until the number of acquired records reduces, as naturally happens when the locks time out. This limit is controlled by the broker
group.share.record.lock.partition.limit configuration parameter. By limiting the duration of the acquisition lock and automatically releasing the locks, the broker ensures delivery progresses even in the presence of consumer failures.
There are some concepts being introduced to Kafka to support share groups.
A share-group coordinator is the broker which is the group coordinator for a share group. The responsibility for being share-group coordinator for the cluster’s share groups is distributed among the brokers, exactly as for consumer groups. The share-group coordinator has the following responsibilities:
It maintains the list of share-group members.
It manages the topic-partition assignments for the share-group members. An initial, trivial implementation would be to give each member the list of all topic-partitions which matches its subscriptions and then use the pull-based protocol to fetch records from all partitions. A more sophisticated implementation could use topic-partition load and lag metrics to distribute partitions among the consumers as a kind of autonomous, self-balancing partition assignment, steering more consumers to busier partitions, for example. Alternatively, a push-based fetching scheme could be used.
A share-partition is a topic-partition with a subscription in a share-group. For a topic-partition subscribed in more than one share group, each share group has its own share-partition.
A share-partition leader is a component of the broker which manages the share-group’s view of a topic-partition. It is co-located with the topic-partition leader, and the leadership of a share-partition follows the leadership of the topic-partition. The share-partition leader has the following responsibilities:
It fetches the records from the replica manager from the local replica
It manages and persists the states of the in-flight records
Share group membership
This KIP builds upon the new consumer group protocol in KIP-848: The Next Generation of the Consumer Rebalance Protocol.
A share group is a new type of group, adding
"share" to the existing group types of
Share group membership is controlled by the group coordinator. Consumers in a share group use the heartbeat mechanism to join, leave and confirm continued membership of the share group. Share-partition assignment is also piggybacked on the heartbeat mechanism. Share groups only support server-side assignors. This KIP introduces just one assignor,
org.apache.kafka.server.group.share.SimpleAssignor , which assigns all partitions of all subscribed topics to all members.
In the future, a more sophisticated share group assignor could balance the number of consumers assigned to the partitions, and it may well revoke partitions from existing members in order to improve the balance. The simple assignor isn’t that smart.
For a share group, a rebalance is a much less significant event than for a consumer group because there’s no fencing. When a partition is assigned to a member of a share group, it’s telling the member that it should fetch records from that partition, which it may well be sharing with the other members of the share group. The members are not aware of each other, and there’s no synchronization barrier or fencing involved. The group coordinator, using the server-side assignor, is responsible for telling the members which partitions they are assigned and revoked. But the aim is to give every member useful work, rather than to keep the members' assignments safely separated.
For a share group, the group coordinator does not need to persist the assignments, but it does need to persist the assignment epoch so that it doesn't move backwards if the group coordinator changes.
The reconciliation process for a share group is very simple because there is no fencing - the group coordinator revokes the partitions which are no longer in the target assignment of the member and assigns the new partitions to the member at the same time. There’s no need for the revocations to be acknowledged before new partitions are assigned. The member acknowledges changes to its assignment, but the group coordinator does not depend upon receiving the acknowledgement to proceed.
Heartbeat and session
The member uses the ConsumerGroupHeartbeat API to establish a session with the group coordinator. The member is expected to heartbeat every
group.share.heartbeat.interval.ms in order to keep its session opened. If it does not heartbeat at least once within the
group.share.session.timeout.ms, the group coordinator will kick the member out from the group. The member is told the heartbeat interval in the response to the
If a member is kicked out of the group because it fails to heartbeat, because there’s intentionally no fencing, at the protocol level, the consumer does not lose the ability to fetch and acknowledge records. A failure to heartbeat is most likely because the consumer has died. If the consumer just failed to heartbeat due to a temporary pause, it could in theory continue to fetch and acknowledge records. When it finally sends a heartbeat and realises it’s been kicked out of the group, it should stop fetching records because its assignment has been revoked, and rejoin the group.
Share groups do not support static membership. Because the membership of a share group is more ephemeral, there’s less advantage to maintaining an assignment when a member has temporarily left but will rejoin within the session timeout.
Share group states
Share groups do not have the ASSIGNING state because only server-side assignors are supported, and do not need the RECONCILING state because there’s no need for all members to converge before the group enters the STABLE state.
- EMPTY - When a share group is created or the last member leaves the group, the share group is EMPTY.
- STABLE - When a share group has active members, the share group is STABLE.
- DEAD - When the share group remains EMPTY for a configured period, the group coordinator transitions it to DEAD to delete it.
For each share-partition, the share group adds some state management for the records being consumed. The starting offset of records which are eligible for consumption is known as the share-partition start offset (SPSO), and the last offset of records which are eligible for consumption is known as the share-partition end offset (SPEO). The records between starting at the SPSO and up to the SPEO are known as the in-flight records. So, a share-partition is essentially managing the consumption of the in-flight records.
The SPEO is not necessarily always at the end of the topic-partition and it just advances freely as records are fetched beyond this point. The segment of the topic-partition between the SPSO and the SPEO is a sliding window that moves as records are consumed. The share-partition leader limits the distance between the SPSO and the SPEO. The upper bound is controlled by the broker configuration
group.share.record.lock.partition.limit. Unlike existing queuing systems, there’s no “maximum queue depth”, but there is a limit to the number of in-flight records at any point in time.
The records in a share-partition are in one of four states:
The record is available for a consumer
The record has been acquired for a specific consumer, with a time-limited acquisition lock
The record has been processed and acknowledged by a consumer
The record is not available for a consumer
All records before the SPSO are in Archived state. All records after the SPEO are in Available state, but not yet being delivered to consumers.
The records also have a delivery count in order to prevent unprocessable records being endlessly delivered to consumers. If a record is repeatedly causing exceptions during its processing, it is likely that it is a “poison message”, perhaps with a formatting or semantic error. Every time that a record is acquired by a consumer in a share group, its delivery count increments by 1. The first time a record is acquired, its delivery count is 1.
The state transitions look like this:
The share-partition leader persists the states and delivery counts. These updates are not performed with exactly-once semantics, so the delivery count cannot be relied upon to be precise in all situations. It is intended as a way to protect against poison messages, rather than a precise count of the number of times a record is delivered to a consumer.
When records are fetched for a consumer, the share-partition leader starts at the SPSO and finds Available records. For each record it finds, it moves it into Acquired state, bumps its delivery count and adds it to a batch of acquired records to return to the consumer. The consumer then processes the records and acknowledges their consumption. The delivery attempt completes successfully and the records move into Acknowledged state.
Alternatively, if the consumer cannot process a record or its acquisition lock elapses, the delivery attempt completes unsuccessfully and the record’s next state depends on the delivery count. If the delivery count has reached the cluster’s share delivery attempt limit (5 by default), the record moves into Archived state and is not eligible for additional delivery attempts. If the delivery count has not reached the limit, the record moves back into Available state and can be delivered again.
This means that the delivery behavior is at-least-once.
Share groups focus primarily on sharing to allow consumers to be scaled independently of partitions. The records in a share-partition can be delivered out of order to a consumer, in particular when redeliveries occur.
For example, imagine two consumers in a share group consuming from a single-partition topic. The first consumer fetches records 100 to 109 inclusive and then crashes. At the same time, the second consumer fetches, processes and acknowledges records 110 to 119. When the second consumer fetches again, it gets records 100 to 109 with their delivery counts set to 2 because they are being redelivered. That’s exactly what you want, but the offsets do not necessarily increase monotonically in the same way as they do for a consumer group.
The records returned in a batch for particular share-partition are guaranteed to be in order of increasing offset. There are no guarantees about the ordering of offsets between different batches.
Managing the SPSO and SPEO
The consumer group concepts of seeking and position do not apply to share groups. The SPSO for each share-partition can be initialized for an empty share group and the SPEO naturally moves forwards as records are consumed.
When a topic subscription is added to a share group for the first time, the SPSO is initialized for each share-partition. By default, the SPSO for each share-partition is initialized to the latest offset for the corresponding topic-partitions.
Alternatively, there is an administrative action available using either
AdminClient.alterShareGroupOffsets or the
kafka-share-groups.sh tool to reset the SPSO for an empty share group with no active members. This can be used to “reset” a share group to the start of a topic, a particular timestamp or the end of a topic. It can also be used to initialize the share group to the start of a topic. Resetting the SPSO discards all of the in-flight record state and delivery counts.
For example, to start using a share group S1 to consume for the first time from the earliest offset of a topic T1, you could use:
$ kafka-share-groups.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --group S1 --topic T1 --reset-offsets --to-earliest --execute
If the number of partitions is increased for a topic with a subscription in a share group, the SPSO for the newly created share-partitions is initialized to 0 (which is of course both the earliest and latest offset for an empty topic-partition). This means there is no doubt about what happens when the number of partitions is increased.
If the SPSO is reset to an offset that has been tiered to remote storage (KIP-405: Kafka Tiered Storage), there will be a performance impact just as for existing consumers fetching records from remote storage.
The SPSO for each share-partition is bounded by the log start offset (LSO) of the topic-partition, which is itself managed by the retention policy.
If log segments are being retained based on time, when an inactive log segment's age exceeds the configured time, the LSO advances to the start of the next log segment and the old segment is deleted. If the SPSO is within the log segment that is deleted, it will also advance to the next log segment. This is roughly equivalent to message-based expiration in other messaging systems.
If log segments are being retained based on size, when the log exceeds the configured size, the LSO advances to the start of the next log segment and the old segment is deleted. If the SPSO is within the log segment that is deleted, it will also advance to the next log segment. This keeps control of the space consumed by the log, but it does potentially silently remove records that were eligible for delivery. When using share groups with log retention based on size, it is important to bear this in mind.
When the SPSO advances because of the LSO moving, the in-flight records past which the SPSO moves logically move into Archived state. The exception is that records which are already Acquired for delivery to consumers can be acknowledged successfully, at which point they logically transition into Archived state too.
Note that because the share groups are all consuming from the same log, the retention behavior for a topic applies to all of the share groups consuming from that topic.
In-flight records example
An example of a share-partition showing the states looks like this:
The share group is currently managing the consumption of the in-flight records, which have offsets 2 to 8 inclusive.
All records earlier than offset 2 are in Archived state and are not in-flight
Records 2 and 4 have been acquired for consumption by a consumer, and their delivery counts have been incremented to 1
Record 3 has previously been acquired twice for consumption by a consumer, but went back into Available state
Record 5 has been acknowledged
Record 6 has previously been acquired for consumption by a consumer, was rejected because it cannot be processed, and is in Archived state
Records 7 and 8 are available for consumption by a consumer
All records starting with offset 9 and later are in Available state
The cluster records this information durably. In this example, the durable state contains the SPSO position, the non-zero delivery count for offset 3, the Acknowledged state of offset 5, and the Archived state of offset 6.
Cooperative consumption is inherently record-based, but the expectation is that batching is used to maximise performance. For example:
When a consumer fetches records, the share-partition leader prefers to return complete record batches.
In the usual and optimal case, all of the records in a batch will be in Available state and can all be moved to Acquired state with the same acquisition lock time-out.
When the consumer has processed the fetched records, it can acknowledge delivery of all of the records as a single batch, transitioning them all into Acknowledged state.
So, when a bunch of consumers are cooperatively consumed from a topic using a share group, the natural unit of sharing is the record batch. The processing loop is roughly:
Fetch record batch
Acknowledge all records in batch
In the situation where some records in a batch have been released or rejected separately, subsequent fetches of those records are more likely to have gaps.
Fetching and acknowledging records
Share groups introduce two new APIs in the Kafka protocol.
ShareFetchfor fetching records from share-partition leaders
ShareAcknowledgefor acknowledging delivery with share-partition leaders
ShareFetch API works very much like incremental fetch using a concept called a share session. Each share session contains a set of topic-partitions which are managed in the share-partition leaders. The share-partition leader manages the fetching of records and the in-flight record state for its share-partitions. The consumer adds and removes topic-partitions from its share session using the
ShareFetch API just like the
Fetch API is used for incremental fetch. With the
Fetch API, the consumer specifies the fetch offset. With the
ShareFetch API, the consumer just fetches records and the share-partition leader decides which records to return.
In order to ensure no share-partitions are starved from records being fetched, the share-partition leader rotates the order of share-partitions for which it returns partition information. This ensures that it eventually returns data about all partitions for which data is available.
When a batch of records is first read from the log and added to the in-flight records for a share-partition, the broker does not know whether the set of records between the batch’s base offset and the last offset contains any gaps, as might occur for example as a result of log compaction. When the broker does not know which offsets correspond to records, the batch is considered an unmaterialized record batch. Rather than forcing the broker to iterate through all of the records in all cases, which might require decompressing every batch, the broker can send unmaterialized record batches to consumers. It initially assumes that all offsets between the base offset and the last offset correspond to records. When the consumer processes the batch, it may find gaps and it reports these using the
ShareAcknowledge API. This means that the presence of unmaterialized record batches containing gaps might temporarily inflate the number of in-flight records, but this will be resolved by the consumer acknowledgements.
Client programming interface
A new interface
KafkaShareConsumer is introduced for consuming from share groups. It looks very similar to
KafkaConsumer trimmed down to the methods that apply to share groups.
To join a share group, the client application instantiates a
KafkaShareConsumer using the configuration parameter
group.id to give the ID of the share group. Then, it uses
.subscribe(Collection<String> topics) to provide the list of topics that it wishes to consume from. The consumer is not allowed to assign partitions itself.
Each call to
.poll(Duration) fetches data from any of the topic-partitions for the topics to which it subscribed. It returns a set of in-flight records acquired for this consumer for the duration of the acquisition lock timeout. For efficiency, the consumer preferentially returns complete record sets with no gaps. The application then processes the records and acknowledges their delivery, either using explicit or implicit acknowledgement.
If the application calls the
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType) method for any record in the batch, it is using explicit acknowledgement. The calls to
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType) must be issued in the order in which the records appear in the
ConsumerRecords object, which will be in order of increasing offset for each share-partition. In this case:
The application calls
.commitSync/Async()which commits the acknowledgements to Kafka. If any records in the batch were not acknowledged, they remain acquired and will be presented to the application in response to a future poll.
The application calls
.poll(Duration)without committing first, which commits the acknowledgements to Kafka asynchronously. In this case, no exception is thrown by a failure to commit the acknowledgement. If any records in the batch were not acknowledged, they remain acquired and will be presented to the application in response to a future poll.
The application calls
.close()which attempts to commit any pending acknowledgements and releases any remaining acquired records.
If the application does not call
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType) for any record in the batch, it is using implicit acknowledgement. In this case:
The application calls
.commitSync/Async()which implicitly acknowledges all of the delivered records as processed successfully and commits the acknowledgements to Kafka.
The application calls
.poll(Duration)without committing, which also implicitly acknowledges all of the delivered records and commits the acknowledgements to Kafka asynchronously. In this case, no exception is thrown by a failure to commit the acknowledgements.
The application calls
.close()which releases any acquired records without acknowledgement.
KafkaShareConsumer guarantees that the records returned in the
ConsumerRecords object for a specific share-partition are in order of increasing offset. For each share-partition, the share-partition leader guarantees that acknowledgements for the records in a batch are performed atomically. This makes error handling significantly more straightforward because there can be one error code per share-partition.
Example - Acknowledging a batch of records (implicit acknowledgement)
In this example, a consumer using share group
"myshare" subscribes to topic
"foo". It processes all of the records in the batch and then calls
.commitSync() which implicitly marks all of the records in the batch as successfully consumed and commits the acknowledgement synchronously with Kafka. Asynchronous commit would also be acceptable.
Behind the scenes, the
KafkaShareConsumer fetches records from the share-partition leader. The leader selects the records in Available state, and will return complete record batches (https://kafka.apache.org/documentation/#recordbatch) if possible. It moves the records into Acquired state, increments the delivery count, starts the acquisition lock timeout, and returns them to the
KafkaShareConsumer . Then the
KafkaShareConsumer keeps a map of the state of the records it has fetched and returns a batch to the application.
When the application calls
KafkaConsumer updates the state map by marking all of the records in the batch as Acknowledged and it then commits the acknowledgements by sending the new state information to the share-partition leader. For each share-partition, the share-partition leader updates the record states atomically.
Example - Per-record acknowledgement (explicit acknowledgement)
In this example, the application uses the result of processing the records to acknowledge or reject the records in the batch.
In this example, each record processed is separately acknowledged using a call to the new
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType) method. The
AcknowledgeType argument indicates whether the record was processed successfully or not. In this case, the bad records are rejected meaning that they’re not eligible for further delivery attempts. For a permanent error such as a deserialization error, this is appropriate. For a transient error which might not affect a subsequent processing attempt, the
AcknowledgeType.RELEASE is more appropriate because the record remains eligible for further delivery attempts.
The calls to
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType) are simply updating the state map in the
KafkaConsumer. It is only once
.commitAsync() is called that the acknowledgements are committed by sending the new state information to the share-partition leader.
Example - Per-record acknowledgement, ending processing of the batch on an error (explicit acknowledgement)
In this example, the application stops processing the batch when it encounters an exception.
There are the following cases in this example:
The batch contains no records, in which case the application just polls again. The call to
.commitAsync()just does nothing because the batch was empty.
All of the records in the batch are processed successfully. The calls to
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType.ACCEPT)marks all records in the batch as successfully processed.
One of the records encounters an exception. The call to
.acknowledge(ConsumerRecord, AcknowledgeType.REJECT)rejects that record. Earlier records in the batch have already been marked as successfully processed. The call to
.commitAsync()commits the acknowledgements, but the records after the failed record remain Acquired as part of the same delivery attempt and will be presented to the application in response to another poll.
Share group access control is performed on the
GROUP resource type, just the same as consumer groups, with the same rules for the actions checked. A share group is just a new kind of group.
Operations which read information about a share group need permission to perform the
DESCRIBEaction on the named group resource
Operations which change information about a share group (such as consuming a record) need permission to perform the
READaction on the named group resource
Managing durable share-partition state
The share-partition leader is responsible for recording the durable state for the share-partitions it leads. For each share-partition, we need to be able to recover:
The Share-Partition Start Offset (SPSO)
The state of the in-flight records
The delivery counts of records whose delivery failed
The delivery counts are only maintained approximately and the Acquired state is not persisted. This minimises the amount of share-partition state that has to be logged. The expectation is that most records will be fetched and acknowledged in batches with only one delivery attempt.
Starting state of topic-partition with latest offset 100
In the batched case with successful processing, there’s a state change per batch to move the SPSO forwards
Fetch records 100-109
SPEO=110, records 100-109 (acquired, delivery count 1)
SPSO=100, SPEO=110, records 100-109 (acquired, delivery count 1)
With a messier sequence of release and acknowledge, there’s a state change for each operation which can act on multiple records
Fetch records 110-119
SPEO=120, records 110-119 (acquired, delivery count 1)
SPSO=110, SPEO=120, records 110-119 (acquired, delivery count 1)
record 110 (available, delivery count 1)
SPSO=110, SPEO=120, record 110 (available, delivery count 1), records 111-119 (acquired, delivery count 1)
record 110 (available, delivery count 1), records 111-118 acquired, record 119 acknowledged
SPSO=110, SPEO=120, record 110 (available, delivery count 1), records 111-118 (acquired, delivery count 1), record 119 acknowledged
Fetch records 110, 120
SPEO=121, record 110 (acquired, delivery count 2), record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
SPSO=110, SPEO=121, record 110 (acquired, delivery count 2), records 111-118 (acquired, delivery count 1), record 119 acknowledged, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
Lock timeout elapsed 111, 112
records 111-112 (available, delivery count 1)
SPSO=110, SPEO=121, record 110 (acquired, delivery count 2), records 111-112 (available, delivery count 1), records 113-118 (acquired, delivery count 1), record 119 acknowledged, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
records 113-118 acknowledged
SPSO=110, SPEO=121, record 110 (acquired, delivery count 2), records 111-112 (available, delivery count 1), records 113-119 acknowledged, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
Fetch records 111,112
records 111-112 (acquired, delivery count 2)
SPSO=110, SPEO=121, record 110-112 (acquired, delivery count 2), records 113-119 acknowledged, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
SPSO=111, SPEO=121, record 111-112 (acquired, delivery count 2), records 113-119 acknowledged, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
SPSO=120, SPEO=121, record 120 (acquired, delivery count 1)
Further details to follow as the design progresses.
This KIP introduces extensive additions to the public interfaces.
Client API changes
This KIP introduces a new interface for consuming records from a share group.
|Acknowledge successful delivery of a record returned on the last |
|Acknowledge delivery of a record returned on the last |
|Close the consumer, waiting for up to the default timeout of 30 seconds for any needed cleanup.|
|Tries to close the consumer cleanly within the specified timeout.|
|Commits the acknowledgements for the records returned.|
|Commits the acknowledgements for the records returned.|
|Commits the acknowledgements for the records returned.|
|Get the metrics kept by the consumer.|
|Get metadata about the partitions for a given topic.|
|Get metadata about the partitions for a given topic.|
|Fetch data for the topics or partitions specified using the subscribe API.|
|Subscribe to the given list of topics to get dynamically assigned partitions.|
|Get the current subscription.|
|Unsubscribe from topics currently subscribed with |
|Wakeup the consumer.|
org.apache.kafka.clients.consumer.AcknowledgeType enum distinguishes between the types of acknowledgement for a record consumer using a share group.
|The record was consumed successfully|
|The record was not consumed successfully. Release it for another delivery attempt.|
|The record was not consumed successfully. Reject it and do not release it for another delivery attempt.|
Add the following methods on the
|Alter offset information for a share group.|
|Delete offset information for a set of partitions in a share group.|
|Delete share groups from the cluster.|
|Describe some share groups in the cluster.|
|List the share group offsets available in the cluster.|
|List the share groups available in the cluster.|
The equivalence between the consumer group and share group interfaces is clear. There are some differences:
- Altering the offsets for a share group resets the Share Start Offset for topic-partitions in the share group (share-partitions)
- The members of a share group are not assigned partitions
- A share group has only three states -
A new tool is added for working with share groups called
kafka-share-groups.sh . It has the following options:
Consider all topics assigned to a group in the `reset-offsets` process.
--bootstrap-server <String: server to connect to>
REQUIRED: The server(s) to connect to.
--command-config <String: command config property file>
Property file containing configs to be passed to Admin Client.
Pass in groups to delete topic partition offsets over the entire share group. For instance --group g1 --group g2
Delete offsets of share group. Supports one share group at the time, and multiple topics.
Describe share group and list offset lag (number of records not yet processed) related to given group.
Only show results without executing changes on share groups. Supported operations: reset-offsets.
Execute operation. Supported operations: reset-offsets.
--group <String: share group>
The share group we wish to act on.
List all share groups.
Describe members of the group. This option may be used with the '--describe' option only.
Describe the group and list all topic partitions in the group along with their offset lag. This is the default sub-action of and may be used with the '--describe' option only.
Reset offsets of share group. Supports one share group at a time, and instances must be inactive.
--to-datetime <String: datetime>
Reset offsets to offset from datetime. Format: 'YYYY-MM-DDTHH:mm:SS.sss'.
Reset offsets to earliest offset.
Reset offsets to latest offset.
--topic <String: topic>
The topic whose share group information should be deleted or topic which should be included in the reset offset process.
Display Kafka version.
Here are some examples.
To display a list of all share groups:
$ kafka-share-groups.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --list
To delete the information for topic
T1 from inactive share group
S1 , which essentially resets the consumption of this topic in the share group:
$ kafka-share-groups.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --group S1 --topic T1 --delete-offsets
To set the starting offset for consuming topic
T1 in inactive share group
S1 to a specific date and time:
$ kafka-share-groups.sh --bootstrap-server localhost:9092 --group S1 --topic T1 --reset-offsets --to-datetime 1999-12-31T23:57:00.000 --execute
|Whether to enable share groups on the broker.||Default |
|The maximum number of delivery attempts for a record delivered to a share group.||Default 5, minimum 2, maximum 10|
|Share-group record acquisition lock duration in milliseconds.||Default 30000 (30 seconds), minimum 1000 (1 second), maximum 60000 (60 seconds)|
|Share-group record acquisition lock maximum duration in milliseconds.||Default 60000 (60 seconds), minimum 1000 (1 second), maximum 3600000 (1 hour)|
|Share-group record lock limit per share-partition.||Default 200, minimum 100, maximum 10000|
The timeout to detect client failures when using the group protocol.
|Default 45000 (45 seconds)|
The minimum session timeout.
|Default 45000 (45 seconds)|
The maximum session timeout.
|Default 60000 (60 seconds)|
The heartbeat interval given to the members.
|Default 5000 (5 seconds)|
The minimum heartbeat interval.
|Default 5000 (5 seconds)|
The maximum heartbeat interval.
|Default 15000 (15 seconds)|
The maximum number of consumers that a single share group can accommodate.
The server-side assignors as a list of full class names. In the initial delivery, only the first one in the list is used.
|A list of class names. Default |
The maximum number of share sessions that the broker will maintain.
The following dynamic group configuration properties are added. These are properties for which it would be problematic to have consumers in the same share group using different behavior if the properties were specified in the consumer clients themselves.
Controls how to read records written transactionally. If set to
What to do when there is no initial offset in Kafka or if the current offset does not exist any more on the server:
The following new configuration properties are added for the consumer.
|Record acquisition lock duration in milliseconds.||null, which uses the cluster configuration |
The existing consumer configurations apply for share groups with the following exceptions:
auto.offset.reset: this is handled by a dynamic group configuration
auto.commit.interval.ms: share groups do not support auto-commit
isolation.level: this is handled by a dynamic group configuration
partition.assignment.strategy: share groups do not support client-side partition assignors
interceptor.classes: interceptors are not supported
Kafka protocol changes
This KIP introduces the following new APIs:
ShareFetch- for fetching records from share-partition leaders
ShareAcknowledge- for acknowledging delivery of records with share-partition leaders
- Additional APIs not yet documented for the AdminAPI enhancements which will follow the obvious existing precedents
The ShareFetch API is used by share group consumers to fetch acquired records from share-partition leaders.
The ShareAcknowledge API is used by share group consumers to acknowledge delivery of records with share-partition leaders.
Further details to follow as the design progresses.
There are some obvious extensions to this idea which are not included in this KIP in order to keep the scope manageable.
This KIP introduces delivery counts and a maximum number of delivery attempts. An obvious future extension is the ability to copy records that failed to be delivered onto a dead-letter queue. This would of course give a way to handle poison messages without them permanently blocking processing.
A “browsing” consumer which does not modify the share group state or take acquisition locks could be supported which needs lesser permission (
DESCRIBE ) on the group than a proper consumer (
READ ). This is a little more complicated because it needs to have a position independent of the SPSO so that it can traverse along the queue.
The focus in this KIP is on sharing rather than ordering. The concept can be extended to give key-based ordering so that partial ordering and fine-grained sharing can be achieved at the same time.
For topics in which share groups are the only consumption model, it would be nice to be able to have the SPSO of the share-partitions taken in to consideration when cleaning the log and advancing the log start offset.
It would also be possible to have share-group configuration to control the maximum time-to-live for records and automatically archive them at this time.
Finally, this KIP does not include support for acknowledging delivery using transactions for exactly-once semantics. Conceptually, this is quite straightforward but would take changes to the API.
Compatibility, Deprecation, and Migration Plan
The changes in this KIP add to the capabilities of Kafka rather than changing existing behavior.
Detail to follow.
Share group consumers use KafkaConsumer
In this option, the regular
KafkaConsumer was used by consumers to consume records from a share group, using a configuration parameter
group.type to choose between using a share group or a consumer group. While this means that existing Kafka consumers can trivially make use of share groups, there are some obvious downsides:
- An application using
KafkaConsumerwith a consumer group could be switched to a share group with very different semantics with just a configuration change. There is almost no chance that the application would work correctly.
- Libraries such as Kafka Connect which embed Kafka consumers while not work correctly with share groups without code changes beyond changing the configuration. As a result, there is a risk of breaking connectors due to misconfiguration using the
- More than half of the
KafkaConsumermethods do not make sense for share groups introducing a lot of unnecessary cruft.
As a result, the KIP now proposes an entirely different class
KafkaShareConsumer which gives a very interface as
KafkaConsumer but eliminates the downsides listed above.