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Kernel Modules

NuttX has had support for Kernel Modules for some time. A kernel module allows you to extend the functionality of the OS at runtime by installing ELF modules into the kernel. A kernel module might be used, to example, to load device drivers into RAM at runtime.

Here are some general properties of kernel modules:

  1. The first kernel module is loaded into the kernel address space by insmod() using only a symbol table exported by the OS.
  2. Kernel modules can also (optionally) export a symbol table. Such symbol tables are remembered and will be used by insmod() to resolved undefined symbols in subsequently loaded modules.
  3. This requires dependency checking logic: A module that imports symbols from another module must be added after the modules that it depends upon. And a module exports a symbol may not be removed while there are such inter-module dependencies in place. A module that imports symbols from another module must be removed before the module that exports the symbol can be removed.
  4. There is a (non-standard) OS interface modsym() that will allow kernel logic to look up symbols within a kernel module.
  5. Handles are used at the kernel module interfaces: insmod() returns a handle to the module data structure. That handle can subsequently be used to retrieve symbols with modsym().
  6. rmmod() uses the handle to remove the module.
  7. modhandle() is also available for backward compatibility: Given the assigned module name, you can use this to retrieve the module handle at any time.
  8. There is a test case at apps/examples/module.

In the FLAT build, ELF kernel modules are simply loaded into RAM and linked with the base firmware. But things get a little more complex with PROTECTED and KERNEL builds. In those case, there are separate address spaces for the kernel and for applications. Kernel modules are only loaded in the kernel address space and, hence, are not available to applications.

Shared Libraries

A shared library is another software module with these properties: The .text address space is accessible to all applications. The .data and .bss address space is in the same address space as the application that uses the shared library. So, they are shared in the sense that the .text is shared.

FLAT Build

In the FLAT build environment, there is only one address space. So what is the difference between a kernel module and a shared library in this case? Certainly a kernel module meets all of the requirements of a shared library in that environment. In this case kernel modules really only differ from shared libraries in their usage semantics:

For the FLAT build, I have added the standard include/dllfcn.h and have implemented the FLAT shared library support as a thin wrapper around the kernel module support:

  • dlopen() maps to insmod()
  • dlclose() maps to rmmod()
  • dlsym() maps to modsym()
  • dlerror() is only a stub at the present time.

There is a shared library test case at apps/examples/sotest.


The PROTECTED build is equivalent to the FLAT build except that there are two address spaces: The kernel address space and the user address space. But all applications still share the same user address spaces. As a result .text along with .data and .bss are naturally shared. This requires using two copies of the the module logic: One residing in kernel address space and using the kernel symbol table and one residing in user space using the user space symbol table. The first provides only kernel module support; the second only PROTECTED mode shared library support.

This is accomplished by breaking the kernel module logic in two components with OS kernel module interfaces in sched/module but with a sharable module library at libc/modlib. The shared library functions no longer call the kernel module logic but rather implement their one top-level management logic using the lower-level routines in the module library.

Better FLAT and PROTECTED Mode Shared Libraries

A better implementation of shared libraries in the FLAT and PROTECTED builds would, however, have a separate copy of the .bss and .data region for each NuttX task group. A task group is the moral equivalent of a Unix process. That is how a shared library would have to work in uClinux, for example. But that would be a substantial effort! For example, since each .bss/.data would lie at a different physical addres, the .text section logic would need support Position-Independent-Data (PID). Embedded PID support, however, is pretty much broken on all current GCC implementations. See NxFlat Compatibility Problem. Perhaps the xFLAT work that I did for uClinux shared libraries could be ported to Nuttx: xFLAT Web Page

For more information about task groups see NuttX tasking or Threads vs. Tasks.

The current implementation also assumes that all firmware resides in base FLASH and hence is fully linked prior to loading any modules or shared libraries. There is no support for loading programs into RAM and binding them to symbols exported by modules or shared libraries. This extension would, however, not be so difficult for the FLAT build; it would be a simple matter of integrating the exported module symbol tables into the symbol lookup. That is already done in sched/module files, but not yet in the very similar binfmt/libelf files.

In the PROTECTED build, this would require some special start-up logic in the user address space as the initial steps of the newly started task. Some kind of dynamic loader, such as, would have to integrate with crt0 logic to automatically bind user space tasks to shared libraries as they are loaded into and memory before the programs main() function is called.


The KERNEL build, however, is a completely different creature. In that build, the kernel and each process has its own adress space. This means that a shared library in the kernel build has to be considerably more complex: In order to be shared, the .text portion of the module (1) must lie in a single shared memory region accessible from all processes and (2) built for Position-Independent-Code (PIC) operation since it must execute from an arbitrarily different virtual address in each process address space. The .data/.bss portion of the module must be allocated in the user address space of each process, but either (1) .data/.bss section must lie at a consistent virtual address so that it can be referenced from the one copy of the .text in the shared memory region, or (2) the .text section logic must support Position-Independent-Data (PID). The latter approach provides for a simpler build, but embedded PID support is pretty much broken on all current GCC implementations. See NxFlat Compatibility Problem.

Some kind of dynamic loader, such as, would have to integrate with crt0 logic to automatically bind processes to shared libraries as they are loaded into memory before the programs main() logic is called.

There is not yet any shared library support in the KERNEL build mode. This would be quite a large effort and not on the plan of record at the present time.

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