This is my first draft of putting together some process flow diagrams and process stories for manufacturing. I've used the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) conventions for the process flow diagrams. It is made up of pools and swimlanes to show which department or person (actor) performs a specific task.
I've started with a simple manufacturing scenario where the manufacturing process is driven by MRP. The trigger for the process to start is the running of MRP. This process should support:
- Make to Stock (MTS)
- Make to Order (MTO)
- Assemble to Stock (ATS)
- Assemble to Order (ATO)
NOTE: The Quality Assurance step is a very important for process manufacturing where ingredients and recipes are used to manufacture products. Lot processing isnt mentioned here but it is supported and it will be triggered by the booking of the manufactured product into inventory on the completion of the production run.
Some of these process stories are already or partially included in the Universal Business Process Library (UBPL) in the OFBiz Requirements and Designs workspace. As I dont have access to that space - I've included the information here.
Describe Diagram Conventions used:
Pool: - defines the participants in a process (I've separated out internal organisations eg Manufacturing, Purchasing, Inventory, Accounting as well as the external ones eg Suppliers)
Swimlane: - a swimlane is a way of showing who actions a particular process. See link to Wikipedia definition.
Diagram attachments are as follows:
- Complete Manufacturing Overview Process Diagram
- Complete Manufacturing Overview Process Diagram - Parts 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 (chopped into smaller pieces for easier viewing and printing).
Diagrams support following actors and stories.
List of Actors
Party responsible for planning production or manufacturing and running the Material Requirements Planning (MRP) report
Production (or Manufacturing) Manager
Party responsible for managing production or manufacturing tasks.
A group of parties responsible for carrying out the tasks required for production or manufacturing runs
Inventory Goods Receiving Team (Referred to as Shipment Receiver in UBPL)
A group of parties responsible for accepting incoming shipments and receiving items into inventory
Quality Assurance Team
A group of parties responsile for carrying out tests on a manufactured product (or group of products) to ensure it meets legal or regulatory requirements.
Party responsible for creating Purchase Orders, approving them and then sending them to suppliers
NOTE: This role could be broken down further to a Purchase Order Entry Clerk that enters the purchase order and the manager that approves the purchase order.
Accounts Payable Manager
Party responsible for receiving, approving and the payment of supplier invoices.
NOTE: This role could be broken down further to an Accounts Payable Clerk that receives and updates the supplier invoice and the manager that approves the invoice for payment. Also in a small company this role could be performed by one person - the accountant.
Raw Material Supplier (Referred to as Supplier in UBPL)
Party responsible for supplying raw material products for manufacturing.
Process Story: Run Material Requirements Planner (MRP)
The Production Planner runs the MRP report on a regular basis (eg daily).
The Production Planner approves all manufacturing requirements proposed by MRP.
For each approved manufacturing requirement a production run is automatically created.
The created production run will appear in the list of manufacturing jobs to be done and will await scheduling by the Production Manager.
If the MRP requirement is for raw materials then the Production Planner sends this information with a copy of the MPR report to the Production Manager.
Process Story: Approve Manufacturing Raw Material Requirements
The Production Manager receives a copy of the raw material requirements (referred to as a Product Requirement in OFBiz) suggested by MRP and a copy of the MRP report.
The Production Manager verifies the requirements and then approves or rejects the MRP suggestion to purchase more raw materials for manufacturing.
If the Production Manager approves the raw materials requirement then a message is sent to the Purchasing Manager to create a Purchase Order for the raw material required.
If the Production Manager rejects the raw materials requirement then it will be deleted from the requirements list.
Process Story: Run Manufacturing Production Run
The Production Manager reviews all production runs created by MRP, approves and then allocates them to the Manufacturing Team.
The Manufacturing Team will work through each of the manufacturing taks in a production run until they are all complete. Each production run results in a manufactured product (or group of products).
If the manufactured product does not require Quality Assurance (QA) testing then it can be booked directly into inventory.
If the manufactured product does need to be Quality Assurance tested then the Manufacturing Team informs the Quality Assurance team that the product is complete and ready for testing.
Process Story: Manufacturing Quality Assurance
The Quality Assurance (QA) Team will be notified by the Manufacturing Team of any manufactured product (or group of products) that need to be Quality Assurance tested.
The Quality Assurance team will take samples of the manufactured product and lookup the tests required for the product. They will then perform the testing required. This may be one or multiple tests.
As each test is performed the Quality Assurance Team will log the results. Once all the tests are complete, the Quality Assurance Team will produce a report and link it to the tested product (or production run). Based on this report the manufactured product (or production run) is flagged with an overall 'pass' or 'fail'.
If the manufactured product has passed then the Quality Assurance Team notifies the Manufacturing Team. The Manufacturing Team will then book the product into inventory using a lot number.
If the manufactured product fails testing then it cannot be booked into inventory to be available for use, instead the Quality Assurance Team will hold it in a 'failed QA' location within the warehouse.
The Quality Assurance Team will notify the Production Manager with the details of the product failure.
The Production Manager reviews the failure report and investigates with the Manufacturing Team, the causes of the problem (eg invalid raw material, wrong processing, bad workmanship, contamination etc)
Process Story: Generate Purchase Order (already exists in UBPL?)
The Purchasing Manager receives notification from the Production Manager that a Purchase Order needs to be created.
The Purchasing Manager creates the Purchase Order and selects a supplier.
The Purchasing manager approves the Purchase Order.
The Purchasing Manager sends the Purchase Order to the Supplier.
Process Story: Supplier Fulfillment of Purchase Order (already exists in UBPL?)
The Supplier recieves the Purchase Order from the Purchasing Manager.
The Supplier prepares the purchase order items.
The Supplier arranges for the shipment of the purchase order items.
The Supplier despatches the items.
Once the items are despatched the Supplier generates an invoice for the purchase order.
The invoice for the purchase order is sent to the Accounts Payable Manager for payment.
Process Story: Inventory Goods Receiving Process Story (already exists in UBPL?)
The Inventory Goods Receiving Team accept all shipments that arrive. When the Purchase Order items arrive, the Good Receiving Team verifies the items against the Purchase Order.
The Goods Receiving Team will then book the ordered items into inventory. When the Goods Receiving Team recieve the purchase order itesm a 'Pro-Forma' invoice is created for teh Purchase Order.
NOTE: A Pro-Forma Invoice is a 'draft Purchase Invoice' based on the details from the Purchase Order.
Process Story: Process Supplier Invoice (already exists in UBPL?)
When the Goods Receiving Team receive the Purchase Order items, a 'pro-forma' invoice is created to the supplier. This is a draft Purchase Invoice and is based on a copy of the details from the Purchase Order.
The Supplier sends an invoice (Purchase Invoice) to the Accounting Accounts Payable Team for the Purchase Order items.
The Accounts Payable Team update the draft pro-forma invoice with the details from the actual Purchase Invoice.
The Accounts Payable team approve the invoice and send the payment to the Supplier.