In the Validating Input lesson, we used the validation framework to verify data submitted from a form. In the Localizing Output lesson, we move the validation messages to a message resource bundle.

When creating web applications, we often find ourselves using the same messages or field labels on multiple pages. We may also want to localize the messages if the application is going to be used by people of different languages.

Localizing Validation Messages and Fields

Let's add a message resource bundle and move into it the validation messages and field labels.

The Code

The framework associates message resources to classes. To add a message resource for the Logon action, we could just name the resource and set it on the classpath next to the Logon Action.

But, most people find it counter-productive to use separate message resource bundles for each class. Instead, many people prefer to add a bundle for an entire package of classes. To do this, simply add a file to the package. In our case, it would be the tutorial package.

requiredstring = ${getText(fieldName)} is required.
password = Password
username = User Name

We also need to make changes to the validator and Logon page. As you see a value in resource bundle can also be specified as an expression.


(minus) <message>Username is required</message>
(plus) <message key="requiredstring"/>

(minus) <message>Password is required</message>
(plus) <message key="requiredstring"/>


(minus) <s:textfield label="User Name" name="username"/>
(plus) <s:textfield label="%{getText('username')}" name="username"/>

(minus) <s:password label="Password" name="password" />
(plus) <s:password label="%{getText('password')}" name="password" />

How the Code Works

  • The "key" attribute tells the validator to check for a message resource bundle.
  • In the resource bundle, the expression
    tells the framework to lookup the field name in the bundle too. This way we can use the same default message for all the requiredstring validators.
  • Likewise, in the text filed, the expression
    tells the framework to lookup "password" in the message resources.

Localizing Other Messages

Other page elements can be localized too. For example, we could add the "Hello World" and the "Missing page" message to the bundle.

The Code

# ... 
HelloWorld.message = Struts is up and running ...
Missing.message = This feature is under construction. Please try again in the next iteration.

This will work for HelloWorld since it is already in the tutorial package. But it won't work for the default Missing action, unless we add our own base class for the tutorial package.
package tutorial;
import com.opensymphony.xwork2.ActionSupport;
public class TutorialSupport extends ActionSupport {}

And update the default wildcard mapping.

<action name="*" class="tutorial.TutorialSupport">

Now, we can update HelloWorld.jsp and Missing.jsp to lookup the messages.


(minus) This feature is under construction. Please try again in the next iteration.
(plus) <s:text name="Missing.message"/>

In the case of HelloWorld, we set the message from the Action class. Let's update the class to use the message resource instead.
package tutorial;

public class HelloWorld extends TutorialSupport {

    public static final String MESSAGE = "HelloWorld.message";

    public String execute() throws Exception {
        return SUCCESS;

  // ... 

How the Code Works

  • For Missing.jsp, we used the text tag to lookup the message from the resource bundle.
  • For HelloWorld, we use the getText method in the Action class to lookup the message.
  • The HelloWorld.jsp displayed the message set by the Action, so it didn't need to change at all.

What to Remember

The framework is internationalized. To localize an application, we add the resource bundles, and update some elements or tags to refer to the bundles instead of static text.

(lightbulb) For more, see Localization in the Core Developers Guide.

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  1. Two curly end braces (}) should be monospaced (in section "How the Code Works").

    1. This appears to have been fixed; thanks for the feedback.

  2. The word "Login" should be replaced by "Logon" which is the correct action name according to previous pages.

    1. This appears to have been fixed; thanks for the feedback.

  3. The class should extend the class instead of

    1. Fixed; thanks for the feedback.

  4. another typo: interation --> iteration

    1. Fixed; thanks for the feedback.

  5. at this point of the tutorial we have only created Menu.jsp, not missing.jsp.

    1. Fixed; a typo on a previous page leads to that incorrect assumption. Thanks for the feedback.

  6. While implied by inclusion of the text tag, it should be stated explicitly that the taglib directive also needs to be added to Missing.jsp page:


    <%@ taglib prefix="s" uri="/struts-tags" %>
    <s:text name="Missing.message"/>

    as opposed to just:

    <s:text name="Missing.message"/>

    1. Hmm, I think that's quite obvious: you cannot use an unregistered tag prefix in JSPs, right ?

      1. For someone relatively new to using taglibs, such as myself, it wasn't screamingly obvious to me when the message wasn't showing up in the Missing.jsp. Not because I didn't know that it needed to be included, but instead because I didn't realize it wasn't added when creating the page. It's not a big deal, just took me a minute or so to realize it.

  7. In, I think escaping the first brace causes problems (at least on Windows local instance):

    requiredstring = ${getText(fieldName)} is required.

    requiredstring = $

    Unknown macro: {getText(fieldName)}

    is required.

    1. Your comment didn't quite come trough - could you format it correct please ?

    2. I think that was done to avoid it being interpreted as a wiki macro, like your comment was.