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  • Zab vs. Paxos

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Paxos can be used for primary-backup replication by letting the primary be the leader. The problem with Paxos is that, if a primary concurrently proposes multiple state updates and fails, the new primary may apply uncommitted updates in an incorrect order. An example is presented in our DSN 2011 paper (Figure 1). In the example, a replica should only apply the state update B after applying A. The example shows that, using Paxos, a new primary and its follows may apply B after C, reaching an incorrect state that has not been reached by any of the previous primaries.