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Operator

Operand types

Description

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A[n]

A is an Array and n is an int

returns the nth element in the array A. The first element has index 0 e.g. if A is an array comprising of ['foo', 'bar'] then A[0] returns 'foo' and A[1] returns 'bar'

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M[key]

M is a Map<K, V> and key has type K

returns the value corresponding to the key in the map e.g. if M is a map comprising of {'f' -> 'foo', 'b' -> 'bar', 'all' -> 'foobar'} then M['all'] returns 'foobar'

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S.x

S is a struct

returns the x field of S e.g for struct foobar {int foo, int bar} foobar.foo returns the integer stored in the foo field of the struct.

...

Return Type

Aggregation Function Name (Signature)

Description

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BIGINT

count(*), count(expr), count(DISTINCT expr[, expr_.])

count(*) - Returns the total number of retrieved rows, including rows containing NULL values; count(expr) - Returns the number of rows for which the supplied expression is non-NULL; count(DISTINCT expr[, expr]) - Returns the number of rows for which the supplied expression(s) are unique and non-NULL.

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DOUBLE

sum(col), sum(DISTINCT col)

returns the sum of the elements in the group or the sum of the distinct values of the column in the group

DOUBLE

avg(col), avg(DISTINCT col)

returns the average of the elements in the group or the average of the distinct values of the column in the group

DOUBLE

min(col)

returns the minimum value of the column in the group

DOUBLE

max(col)

returns the maximum value of the column in the group

...

Table of Content Zone
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typelist

Creating Tables

An example statement that would create the page_view table mentioned above would be like:

Code Block
    CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
                    page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
                    ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
    COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
    PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
    STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

In this example the columns of the table are specified with the corresponding types. Comments can be attached both at the column level as well as at the table level. Additionally the partitioned by clause defines the partitioning columns which are different from the data columns and are actually not stored with the data. When specified in this way, the data in the files is assumed to be delimited with ASCII 001(ctrl-A) as the field delimiter and newline as the row delimiter.

The field delimiter can be parametrized if the data is not in the above format as illustrated in the following example:

Code Block
    CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
                    page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
                    ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
    COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
    PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
    ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
            FIELDS TERMINATED BY '1'
    STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

The row deliminator currently cannot be changed since it is not determined by Hive but Hadoop. e delimiters.

It is also a good idea to bucket the tables on certain columns so that efficient sampling queries can be executed against the data set. If bucketing is absent, random sampling can still be done on the table but it is not efficient as the query has to scan all the data. The following example illustrates the case of the page_view table that is bucketed on the userid column:

Code Block
    CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
                    page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
                    ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
    COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
    PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
    CLUSTERED BY(userid) SORTED BY(viewTime) INTO 32 BUCKETS
    ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
            FIELDS TERMINATED BY '1'
            COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY '2'
            MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY '3'
    STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

In the example above, the table is clustered by a hash function of userid into 32 buckets. Within each bucket the data is sorted in increasing order of viewTime. Such an organization allows the user to do efficient sampling on the clustered column - in this case userid. The sorting property allows internal operators to take advantage of the better-known data structure while evaluating queries with greater efficiency.

Code Block
    CREATE TABLE page_view(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
                    page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
                    friends ARRAY<BIGINT>, properties MAP<STRING, STRING>
                    ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User')
    COMMENT 'This is the page view table'
    PARTITIONED BY(dt STRING, country STRING)
    CLUSTERED BY(userid) SORTED BY(viewTime) INTO 32 BUCKETS
    ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
            FIELDS TERMINATED BY '1'
            COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY '2'
            MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY '3'
    STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE;

In this example the columns that comprise of the table row are specified in a similar way as the definition of types. Comments can be attached both at the column level as well as at the table level. Additionally the partitioned by clause defines the partitioning columns which are different from the data columns and are actually not stored with the data. The CLUSTERED BY clause specifies which column to use for bucketing as well as how many buckets to create. The delimited row format specifies how the rows are stored in the hive table. In the case of the delimited format, this specifies how the fields are terminated, how the items within collections (arrays or maps) are terminated and how the map keys are terminated. STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE indicates that this data is stored in a binary format (using hadoop SequenceFiles) on hdfs. The values shown for the ROW FORMAT and STORED AS clauses in the above example represent the system defaults.

Table names and column names are case insensitive.

Browsing Tables and Partitions

Code Block
    SHOW TABLES;

To list existing tables in the warehouse; there are many of these, likely more than you want to browse.

Code Block
    SHOW TABLES 'page.*';

To list tables with prefix 'page'. The pattern follows Java regular expression syntax (so the period is a wildcard).

Code Block
    SHOW PARTITIONS page_view;

To list partitions of a table. If the table is not a partitioned table then an error is thrown.

Code Block
    DESCRIBE page_view;

To list columns and column types of table.

Code Block
    DESCRIBE EXTENDED page_view;

To list columns and all other properties of table. This prints lot of information and that too not in a pretty format. Usually used for debugging.

Code Block
   DESCRIBE EXTENDED page_view PARTITION (ds='2008-08-08');

To list columns and all other properties of a partition. This also prints lot of information which is usually used for debugging.

Loading Data

There are multiple ways to load data into Hive tables. The user can create an external table that points to a specified location within HDFS. In this particular usage, the user can copy a file into the specified location using the HDFS put or copy commands and create a table pointing to this location with all the relevant row format information. Once this is done, the user can transform the data and insert them into any other Hive table. For example, if the file /tmp/pv_2008-06-08.txt contains comma separated page views served on 2008-06-08, and this needs to be loaded into the page_view table in the appropriate partition, the following sequence of commands can achieve this:

Code Block
    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE page_view_stg(viewTime INT, userid BIGINT,
                    page_url STRING, referrer_url STRING,
                    ip STRING COMMENT 'IP Address of the User',
                    country STRING COMMENT 'country of origination')
    COMMENT 'This is the staging page view table'
    ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY '44' LINES TERMINATED BY '12'
    STORED AS TEXTFILE
    LOCATION '/user/data/staging/page_view';

    hadoop dfs -put /tmp/pv_2008-06-08.txt /user/data/staging/page_view

    FROM page_view_stg pvs
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2008-06-08', country='US')
    SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip
    WHERE pvs.country = 'US';

In the example above nulls are inserted for the array and map types in the destination tables but potentially these can also come from the external table if the proper row formats are specified.

This method is useful if there is already legacy data in HDFS on which the user wants to put some metadata so that the data can be queried and manipulated using Hive.

Additionally, the system also supports syntax that can load the data from a file in the local files system directly into a Hive table where the input data format is the same as the table format. If /tmp/pv_2008-06-08_us.txt already contains the data for US, then we do not need any additional filtering as shown in the previous example. The load in this case can be done using the following syntax:

Code Block
   LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH /tmp/pv_2008-06-08_us.txt INTO TABLE page_view PARTITION(date='2008-06-08', country='US')

The path argument can take a directory (in which case all the files in the directory are loaded), a single file name, or a wildcard (in which case all the matching files are uploaded). If the argument is a directory - it cannot contain subdirectories. Similarly - the wildcard must match file names only.

In the case that the input file /tmp/pv_2008-06-08_us.txt is very large, the user may decide to do a parallel load of the data (using tools that are external to Hive). Once the file is in HDFS - the following syntax can be used to load the data into a Hive table:

Code Block
   LOAD DATA INPATH '/user/data/pv_2008-06-08_us.txt' INTO TABLE page_view PARTITION(date='2008-06-08', country='US')

It is assumed that the array and map fields in the input.txt files are null fields for these examples.

Querying and Inserting Data

Table of Content Zone
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Simple Query

For all the active users, one can use the query of the following form:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE user_active
    SELECT user.*
    FROM user
    WHERE user.active = 1;

Note that unlike SQL, we always insert the results into a table. We will illustrate later how the user can inspect these results and even dump them to a local file. You can also run the following query on Hive CLI:

Code Block
    SELECT user.*
    FROM user
    WHERE user.active = 1;

This will be internally rewritten to some temporary file and displayed to the Hive client side.

Partition Based Query

What partitions to use in a query is determined automatically by the system on the basis of where clause conditions on partition columns. For example, in order to get all the page_views in the month of 03/2008 referred from domain xyz.com, one could write the following query:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE xyz_com_page_views
    SELECT page_views.*
    FROM page_views
    WHERE page_views.date >= '2008-03-01' AND page_views.date <= '2008-03-31' AND
          page_views.referrer_url like '%xyz.com';

Note that page_views.date is used here because the table (above) was defined with PARTITIONED BY(date DATETIME, country STRING) ; if you name your partition something different, don't expect .date to do what you think!

Joins

In order to get a demographic breakdown (by gender) of page_view of 2008-03-03 one would need to join the page_view table and the user table on the userid column. This can be accomplished with a join as shown in the following query:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users
    SELECT pv.*, u.gender, u.age
    FROM user u JOIN page_view pv ON (pv.userid = u.id)
    WHERE pv.date = '2008-03-03';

In order to do outer joins the user can qualify the join with LEFT OUTER, RIGHT OUTER or FULL OUTER keywords in order to indicate the kind of outer join (left preserved, right preserved or both sides preserved). For example, in order to do a full outer join in the query above, the corresponding syntax would look like the following query:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users
    SELECT pv.*, u.gender, u.age
    FROM user u FULL OUTER JOIN page_view pv ON (pv.userid = u.id)
    WHERE pv.date = '2008-03-03';

In order check the existence of a key in another table, the user can use LEFT SEMI JOIN as illustrated by the following example.

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users
    SELECT u.*
    FROM user u LEFT SEMI JOIN page_view pv ON (pv.userid = u.id)
    WHERE pv.date = '2008-03-03';

In order to join more than one tables, the user can use the following syntax:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_friends
    SELECT pv.*, u.gender, u.age, f.friends
    FROM page_view pv JOIN user u ON (pv.userid = u.id) JOIN friend_list f ON (u.id = f.uid)
    WHERE pv.date = '2008-03-03';

Note that Hive only supports equi-joins. Also it is best to put the largest table on the rightmost side of the join to get the best performance.

Aggregations

In order to count the number of distinct users by gender one could write the following query:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_gender_sum
    SELECT pv_users.gender, count (DISTINCT pv_users.userid)
    FROM pv_users
    GROUP BY pv_users.gender;

Multiple aggregations can be done at the same time, however, no two aggregations can have different DISTINCT columns .e.g while the following is possible

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_gender_agg
    SELECT pv_users.gender, count(DISTINCT pv_users.userid), count(*), sum(DISTINCT pv_users.userid)
    FROM pv_users
    GROUP BY pv_users.gender;

however, the following query is not allowed

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_gender_agg
    SELECT pv_users.gender, count(DISTINCT pv_users.userid), count(DISTINCT pv_users.ip)
    FROM pv_users
    GROUP BY pv_users.gender;

Multi Table/File Inserts

The output of the aggregations or simple selects can be further sent into multiple tables or even to hadoop dfs files (which can then be manipulated using hdfs utilities). e.g. if along with the gender breakdown, one needed to find the breakdown of unique page views by age, one could accomplish that with the following query:

Code Block
    FROM pv_users
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_gender_sum
        SELECT pv_users.gender, count_distinct(pv_users.userid)
        GROUP BY pv_users.gender

    INSERT OVERWRITE DIRECTORY '/user/data/tmp/pv_age_sum'
        SELECT pv_users.age, count_distinct(pv_users.userid)
        GROUP BY pv_users.age;

The first insert clause sends the results of the first group by to a Hive table while the second one sends the results to a hadoop dfs files.

Dynamic-Partition Insert

In the previous examples, the user has to know which partition to insert into and only one partition can be inserted in one insert statement. If you want to load into multiple partitions, you have to use multi-insert statement as illustrated below.

Code Block
    FROM page_view_stg pvs
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2008-06-08', country='US')
           SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip WHERE pvs.country = 'US'
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2008-06-08', country='CA')
           SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip WHERE pvs.country = 'CA'
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2008-06-08', country='UK')
           SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip WHERE pvs.country = 'UK';

In order to load data into all country partitions in a particular day, you have to add an insert statement for each country in the input data. This is very inconvenient since you have to have the priori knowledge of the list of countries exist in the input data and create the partitions beforehand. If the list changed for another day, you have to modify your insert DML as well as the partition creation DDLs. It is also inefficient since each insert statement may be turned into a MapReduce Job.

Dynamic-partition insert (or multi-partition insert) is designed to solve this problem by dynamically determining which partitions should be created and populated while scanning the input table. This is a newly added feature that is only available from version 0.6.0. In the dynamic partition insert, the input column values are evaluated to determine which partition this row should be inserted into. If that partition has not been created, it will create that partition automatically. Using this feature you need only one insert statement to create and populate all necessary partitions. In addition, since there is only one insert statement, there is only one corresponding MapReduce job. This significantly improves performance and reduce the Hadoop cluster workload comparing to the multiple insert case.

Below is an example of loading data to all country partitions using one insert statement:

Code Block
    FROM page_view_stg pvs
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2008-06-08', country)
           SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip, pvs.country

There are several syntactic differences from the multi-insert statement:

  • country appears in the PARTITION specification, but with no value associated. In this case, country is a dynamic partition column. On the other hand, ds has a value associated with it, which means it is a static partition column. If a column is dynamic partition column, its value will be coming from the input column. Currently we only allow dynamic partition columns to be the last column(s) in the partition clause because the partition column order indicates its hierarchical order (meaning dt is the root partition, and country is the child partition). You cannot specify a partition clause with (dt, country='US') because that means you need to update all partitions with any date and its country sub-partition is 'US'.
  • An additional pvs.country column is added in the select statement. This is the corresponding input column for the dynamic partition column. Note that you do not need to add an input column for the static partition column because its value is already known in the PARTITION clause. Note that the dynamic partition values are selected by ordering, not name, and taken as the last columns from the select clause.

Semantics of the dynamic partition insert statement:

  • When there are already non-empty partitions exists for the dynamic partition columns, (e.g., country='CA' exists under some ds root partition), it will be overwritten if the dynamic partition insert saw the same value (say 'CA') in the input data. This is in line with the 'insert overwrite' semantics. However, if the partition value 'CA' does not appear in the input data, the existing partition will not be overwritten.
  • Since a Hive partition corresponds to a directory in HDFS, the partition value has to conform to the HDFS path format (URI in Java). Any character having a special meaning in URI (e.g., '%', ':', '/', '#') will be escaped with '%' followed by 2 bytes of its ASCII value.
  • If the input column is a type different than STRING, its value will be first converted to STRING to be used to construct the HDFS path.
  • If the input column value is NULL or empty string, the row will be put into a special partition, whose name is controlled by the hive parameter hive.exec.default.partition.name. The default value is HIVE_DEFAULT_PARTITION{}. Basically this partition will contain all "bad" rows whose value are not valid partition names. The caveat of this approach is that the bad value will be lost and is replaced by HIVE_DEFAULT_PARTITION{} if you select them Hive. JIRA HIVE-1309 is a solution to let user specify "bad file" to retain the input partition column values as well.
  • Dynamic partition insert could potentially resource hog in that it could generate a large number of partitions in a short time. To get yourself buckled, we define three parameters:
    • hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode (default value being 100) is the maximum dynamic partitions that can be created by each mapper or reducer. If one mapper or reducer created more than that the threshold, a fatal error will be raised from the mapper/reducer (through counter) and the whole job will be killed.
    • hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions (default value being 1000) is the total number of dynamic partitions could be created by one DML. If each mapper/reducer did not exceed the limit but the total number of dynamic partitions does, then an exception is raised at the end of the job before the intermediate data are moved to the final destination.
    • hive.exec.max.created.files (default value being 100000) is the maximum total number of files created by all mappers and reducers. This is implemented by updating a Hadoop counter by each mapper/reducer whenever a new file is created. If the total number is exceeding hive.exec.max.created.files, a fatal error will be thrown and the job will be killed.
  • Another situation we want to protect against dynamic partition insert is that the user may accidentally specify all partitions to be dynamic partitions without specifying one static partition, while the original intention is to just overwrite the sub-partitions of one root partition. We define another parameter hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=strict to prevent the all-dynamic partition case. In the strict mode, you have to specify at least one static partition. The default mode is strict. In addition, we have a parameter hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true/false to control whether to allow dynamic partition at all. The default value is false.
  • In Hive 0.6, dynamic partition insert does not work with hive.merge.mapfiles=true or hive.merge.mapredfiles=true, so it internally turns off the merge parameters. Merging files in dynamic partition inserts are supported in Hive 0.7 (see JIRA HIVE-1307 for details).

Troubleshooting and best practices:

  • As stated above, there are too many dynamic partitions created by a particular mapper/reducer, a fatal error could be raised and the job will be killed. The error message looks something like:
    Code Block
        hive> set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;
        hive> FROM page_view_stg pvs
              INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt, country)
                     SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip,
                            from_unixtimestamp(pvs.viewTime, 'yyyy-MM-dd') ds, pvs.country;
    ...
    2010-05-07 11:10:19,816 Stage-1 map = 0%,  reduce = 0%
    [Fatal Error] Operator FS_28 (id=41): fatal error. Killing the job.
    Ended Job = job_201005052204_28178 with errors
    ...
    
    The problem of this that one mapper will take a random set of rows and it is very likely that the number of distinct (dt, country) pairs will exceed the limit of hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode. One way around it is to group the rows by the dynamic partition columns in the mapper and distribute them to the reducers where the dynamic partitions will be created. In this case the number of distinct dynamic partitions will be significantly reduced. The above example query could be rewritten to:
    Code Block
        hive> set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;
        hive> FROM page_view_stg pvs
              INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt, country)
                     SELECT pvs.viewTime, pvs.userid, pvs.page_url, pvs.referrer_url, null, null, pvs.ip,
                            from_unixtimestamp(pvs.viewTime, 'yyyy-MM-dd') ds, pvs.country
                     DISTRIBUTE BY ds, country;
    
    This query will generate a MapReduce job rather than Map-only job. The SELECT-clause will be converted to a plan to the mappers and the output will be distributed to the reducers based on the value of (ds, country) pairs. The INSERT-clause will be converted to the plan in the reducer which writes to the dynamic partitions.

Inserting into Local Files

In certain situations you would want to write the output into a local file so that you could load it into an excel spreadsheet. This can be accomplished with the following command:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE LOCAL DIRECTORY '/tmp/pv_gender_sum'
    SELECT pv_gender_sum.*
    FROM pv_gender_sum;

Sampling

The sampling clause allows the users to write queries for samples of the data instead of the whole table. Currently the sampling is done on the columns that are specified in the CLUSTERED BY clause of the CREATE TABLE statement. In the following example we choose 3rd bucket out of the 32 buckets of the pv_gender_sum table:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_gender_sum_sample
    SELECT pv_gender_sum.*
    FROM pv_gender_sum TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 32);

In general the TABLESAMPLE syntax looks like:

Code Block
    TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET x OUT OF y)

y has to be a multiple or divisor of the number of buckets in that table as specified at the table creation time. The buckets chosen are determined if bucket_number module y is equal to x. So in the above example the following tablesample clause

Code Block
      TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 16)

would pick out the 3rd and 19th buckets. The buckets are numbered starting from 0.

On the other hand the tablesample clause

Code Block
     TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 64 ON userid)

would pick out half of the 3rd bucket.

Union All

The language also supports union all, e.g. if we suppose there are two different tables that track which user has published a video and which user has published a comment, the following query joins the results of a union all with the user table to create a single annotated stream for all the video publishing and comment publishing events:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE actions_users
    SELECT u.id, actions.date
    FROM (
        SELECT av.uid AS uid
        FROM action_video av
        WHERE av.date = '2008-06-03'

        UNION ALL

        SELECT ac.uid AS uid
        FROM action_comment ac
        WHERE ac.date = '2008-06-03'
        ) actions JOIN users u ON(u.id = actions.uid);

Array Operations

Array columns in tables can only be created programmatically currently. We will be extending this soon to be available as part of the create table statement. For the purpose of the current example assume that pv.friends is of the type array<INT> i.e. it is an array of integers. The user can get a specific element in the array by its index as shown in the following command:

Code Block
    SELECT pv.friends[2]
    FROM page_views pv;

The select expressions gets the third item in the pv.friends array.

The user can also get the length of the array using the size function as shown below:

Code Block
   SELECT pv.userid, size(pv.friends)
   FROM page_view pv;

Map (Associative Arrays) Operations

Maps provide collections similar to associative arrays. Such structures can only be created programmatically currently. We will be extending this soon. For the purpose of the current example assume that pv.properties is of the type map<String, String> i.e. it is an associative array from strings to string. Accordingly, the following query:

Code Block
    INSERT OVERWRITE page_views_map
    SELECT pv.userid, pv.properties['page type']
    FROM page_views pv;

can be used to select the 'page_type' property from the page_views table.

Similar to arrays, the size function can also be used to get the number of elements in a map as shown in the following query:

Code Block
   SELECT size(pv.properties)
   FROM page_view pv;

Custom Map/Reduce Scripts

Users can also plug in their own custom mappers and reducers in the data stream by using features natively supported in the Hive language. e.g. in order to run a custom mapper script - map_script - and a custom reducer script - reduce_script - the user can issue the following command which uses the TRANSFORM clause to embed the mapper and the reducer scripts.

Note that columns will be transformed to string and delimited by TAB before feeding to the user script, and the standard output of the user script will be treated as TAB-separated string columns. User scripts can output debug information to standard error which will be shown on the task detail page on hadoop.

Code Block
   FROM (
        FROM pv_users
        MAP pv_users.userid, pv_users.date
        USING 'map_script'
        AS dt, uid
        CLUSTER BY dt) map_output

    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users_reduced
        REDUCE map_output.dt, map_output.uid
        USING 'reduce_script'
        AS date, count;

Sample map script (weekday_mapper.py )

Code Block
import sys
import datetime

for line in sys.stdin:
  line = line.strip()
  userid, unixtime = line.split('\t')
  weekday = datetime.datetime.fromtimestamp(float(unixtime)).isoweekday()
  print ','.join([userid, str(weekday)])

Of course, both MAP and REDUCE are "syntactic sugar" for the more general select transform. The inner query could also have been written as such:

Code Block
    SELECT TRANSFORM(pv_users.userid, pv_users.date) USING 'map_script' AS dt, uid CLUSTER BY dt FROM pv_users;

Schema-less map/reduce: If there is no "AS" clause after "USING map_script", Hive assumes the output of the script contains 2 parts: key which is before the first tab, and value which is the rest after the first tab. Note that this is different from specifying "AS key, value" because in that case value will only contains the portion between the first tab and the second tab if there are multiple tabs.

In this way, we allow users to migrate old map/reduce scripts without knowing the schema of the map output. User still needs to know the reduce output schema because that has to match what is in the table that we are inserting to.

Code Block
    FROM (
        FROM pv_users
        MAP pv_users.userid, pv_users.date
        USING 'map_script'
        CLUSTER BY key) map_output

    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users_reduced

        REDUCE map_output.dt, map_output.uid
        USING 'reduce_script'
        AS date, count;

Distribute By and Sort By: Instead of specifying "cluster by", the user can specify "distribute by" and "sort by", so the partition columns and sort columns can be different. The usual case is that the partition columns are a prefix of sort columns, but that is not required.

Code Block
    FROM (
        FROM pv_users
        MAP pv_users.userid, pv_users.date
        USING 'map_script'
        AS c1, c2, c3
        DISTRIBUTE BY c2
        SORT BY c2, c1) map_output

    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE pv_users_reduced

        REDUCE map_output.c1, map_output.c2, map_output.c3
        USING 'reduce_script'
        AS date, count;

Co-Groups

Amongst the user community using map/reduce, cogroup is a fairly common operation wherein the data from multiple tables are sent to a custom reducer such that the rows are grouped by the values of certain columns on the tables. With the UNION ALL operator and the CLUSTER BY specification, this can be achieved in the Hive query language in the following way. Suppose we wanted to cogroup the rows from the actions_video and action_comments table on the uid column and send them to the 'reduce_script' custom reducer, the following syntax can be used by the user:

Code Block
   FROM (
        FROM (
                FROM action_video av
                SELECT av.uid AS uid, av.id AS id, av.date AS date

               UNION ALL

                FROM action_comment ac
                SELECT ac.uid AS uid, ac.id AS id, ac.date AS date
        ) union_actions
        SELECT union_actions.uid, union_actions.id, union_actions.date
        CLUSTER BY union_actions.uid) map

    INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE actions_reduced
        SELECT TRANSFORM(map.uid, map.id, map.date) USING 'reduce_script' AS (uid, id, reduced_val);
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Altering Tables

To rename existing table to a new name. If a table with new name already exists then an error is returned:

Code Block
    ALTER TABLE old_table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

To rename the columns of an existing table. Be sure to use the same column types, and to include an entry for each preexisting column:

Code Block
    ALTER TABLE old_table_name REPLACE COLUMNS (col1 TYPE, ...);

To add columns to an existing table:

Code Block
    ALTER TABLE tab1 ADD COLUMNS (c1 INT COMMENT 'a new int column', c2 STRING DEFAULT 'def val');

Note that a change in the schema (such as the adding of the columns), preserves the schema for the old partitions of the table in case it is a partitioned table. All the queries that access these columns and run over the old partitions implicitly return a null value or the specified default values for these columns.

In the later versions we can make the behavior of assuming certain values as opposed to throwing an error in case the column is not found in a particular partition configurable.

Dropping Tables and Partitions

Dropping tables is fairly trivial. A drop on the table would implicitly drop any indexes(this is a future feature) that would have been built on the table. The associated command is

Code Block

    DROP TABLE pv_users;

To dropping a partition. Alter the table to drop the partition.

Code Block

    ALTER TABLE pv_users DROP PARTITION (ds='2008-08-08')
  • Note that any data for this table or partitions will be dropped and may not be recoverable. *
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