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These setup steps only need to be performed on a particular machine once.

Developers using Linux workstations can skip over the references to Cygwin. If using Windows, install cygwin, including Utils/gnupg and Net/openssh packages.

Create and install a SSH key

  1. Open a shell window. If using Windows, open a cygwin window.
  2. Use ssh-keygen to create an SSH key.
    • ssh-keygen dsa key type only accept 1024 bits; use rsa / 4096 bits instead.
    Program defaults should be fine. No passphrase is required for the ssh key generation. The keys will be saved in ~/.ssh/id_rsa (private) and ~/.ssh/ (public).

    See Authenticating By Public Key (OpenSSH) for a good description on why and how to perform this task.

  3. scp your SSH public key ~/.ssh/ created in last step to ~/ on
  4. Use ssh to login to
    At this point, you will still be prompted for your password.
  5. Create a ~/.ssh folder in your home directory on and change its file mode to 700.
  6. Move or append ~/ to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys and change its file mode to 600.
    • Each public key in the authorized_keys spans only one line.
      • For example: "ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAA ..... agBmmfZ9uAbSqA== dsa-key-20071107"
    • '#' in the first column is a comment line.
  7. Exit out of this ssh session.
  8. Start a new ssh session. No login should be required this time due to the private ssh key on your local box matching up with the public ssh key in your home directory (~/.ssh).

    If you are still prompted for a password, then you have not set up the ssh keys properly. Review the steps above and ensure that all of the steps were followed properly. Or, maybe the instructions are still not quite right and they still need some adjusting. In that case, please update the instructions accordingly. (smile)

Create a GPG key

  1. Open a shell window. If using Windows, open a cygwin window.
    • The generated keys are stored in:
      • *nix - $HOME/.gnupg
      • Windows XP - %HOME%\Application Data\gnupg
      • Windows 7 - C:\ProgramData\GNU\etc\gnupg
    • "gpg --version" shows the GnuPG's home location.
    • Follow the latest steps and guides on the ASF website at as you need to disable using SHA1 and new keys should be 4096 bits. Append the following text to gpg.conf.
      • If you are using an existing gpg certificate, update your current certificate with the above preference using:
  2. Generate a key-pair with gpg, using default key kind ("DSA and Elgamal") and ELG-E keys size (2048).
    The program's default values should be fine. For the "Real Name" enter your full name (ie. Stan Programmer). For the "e-mail address" enter your apache address (ie. You will also be required to enter a "passphrase" for the GPG key generation. Keep track of this as you will need this for the Release processing.
    • Save the content in this subdirectory to a safe media. This contains your private key used to sign all the release materials.
  3. Backup your cygwin home directory to another media
  4. Append your public key to and See the commands describe at the beginning of this KEYS file to perform this task. The gpg key-pair is used to sign the published artifacts for the releases.
    • The file is updated via normal svn commit procedures.
    • The one under has to be manually updated.
  5. Submit your public key to a key server. E.g. or
  6. Following the instructions in and ask multiple (at least 3) current Apache committers to sign your public key.

Update Maven settings for our servers

  1. Create a settings.xml under .m2


    • $USERNAME is the remote username on, not your local userid.
    • $PATH_TO_PRIVATE_KEY is the path to the private key generated for ssh. E.g. /home/yourLocalUserId/.ssh/id_rsa. For Windows' cygwin users, you will need to enter the full cygwin path: /cygdrive/c/cygwin/home/yourLocalUserId/.ssh/id_rsa.
    • $SSH_PASSPHRASE for the supplied $PATH_TO_PRIVATE_KEY. If you don't use this in your settings.xml file, then you will be prompted for it during the Release processing.
    • $GPG_PASSPHRASE is pass phase for the GPG key.
    • $APACHE_LDAP_PWD is your Apache LDAP password, which is shared between SVN and password login for
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