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Forced double OGNL evaluation, when evaluated on raw user input in tag attributes, may lead to remote code execution (similar to S2-029)

Who should read this

All Struts 2 developers and users

Impact of vulnerability

Possible Remote Code Execution vulnerability

Maximum security rating




Always validate incoming parameters' values when re-assigning them to certain Struts' tags attributes.

Don't use %{...} syntax in tag attributes other than value unless you have a valid use-case.

Alternatively upgrade to Struts 2.3.29 or Struts 2.5.1

Affected Software

Struts 2.0.0 - Struts


Alvaro Munoz alvaro dot munoz at

CVE Identifier



The same issue was reported in S2-029 but the proposed solutions were not fully proper. The Apache Struts frameworks when forced, performs double evaluation of attributes' values assigned to certain tags so it is possible to pass in a value that will be evaluated again when a tag's attributes will be rendered.


Some backward incompatibility issues are expected when upgrading to Struts 2.3.29 - it can happen that some OGNL expressions stop working because of performing disallowed arithmetic operations and assigmentsassignments.


Not possible as this fix requires changes in OGNL and how Struts uses OGNL in certain aspects.