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Calendars, Dates, and Times

Most developers don't need to be concerned with the issues discussed here - the OFBiz framework is designed to handle regional issues automatically. If you are a framework developer, then read on...

OFBiz supports date and time localization by using the ICU4J classes and/or the corresponding java.util.* classes.

OFBiz uses the ICU4J library classes instead of the corresponding JRE classes for an important reason: keeping current with changing standards. Whenever regional standards change, the ICU4J library is updated - which keeps OFBiz's internationalization current.

Framework developers get themselves into trouble with date/time localization regularly. This doesn't have to be the case if a little time is invested in understanding the issues involved.

Developers should:

  1. Understand the related Java classes java.util.Datejava.util.Localejava.util.TimeZonejava.util.Calendar and org.ofbiz.base.util.UtilDateTime
  2. Avoid making assumptions
  3. Never use millisecond arithmetic

Also long ago Adrian suggested this 3 rules/use-cases which make much sense and helps to understand, more could be added...

  1. Automatic server processes like the Job Scheduler should use the server's timezone.
  2. Customer-facing processes should use a product store's timezone. Example: "Your order will be shipped by 4:30 PM PST today."
  3. Calendar applications (anything work effort related) should use the user-selected timezone.


The java.util.* Classes


The java.util.Date class, and its subclass java.sql.Timestamp should be thought of as a constant. It is an immutable moment of time occurring in GMT. (The Date class has setXxxx methods, but they are all deprecated.) You cannot change a Date's time zone - it is, and always will be, referenced to GMT.

If you want to localize a Date instance, you'll need a Locale and TimeZone instance. The OFBiz framework makes the user's locale and time zone available throughout most of the execution path - usually in a context Map. Call the UtilDateTime.toDateTimeFormat method (leave the String argument null) to get a DateFormat instance. When you call DateFormat.format, the class will compute the user's date and time using the immutable, GMT-referenced Date and the information provided by the TimeZone instance. The format of the date/time String is controlled by the Locale instance.

If you want to perform date/time arithmetic, you have two options: use the UtilDateTime.adjustTimestamp method, or create a Calendar instance by calling UtilDateTime.toCalendar and adjust the date using that instance.

Avoid Making Assumptions

Different cultures use different calendars. Different regions can have different calendar rules, even when using the same calendar. The Calendar class, when used properly, will accommodate all of these differences.

Assumptions to avoid:

  • A year has 12 months
  • The week number in your locale is the same week number in another locale
  • The week always starts with Sunday
  • Everyone uses a Gregorian calendar

Never Use Millisecond Arithmetic

Knowing that the Date class wraps a millisecond value makes it tempting to use millisecond arithmetic to perform date/time calculations. That approach will always fail - because it doesn't take into consideration different calendar systems, time zones, etc. OFBiz developers should never use millisecond arithmetic.